Charlotte Mason in Modern English

Charlotte Mason's ideas are too important not to be understood and implemented in the 21st century, but her Victorian style of writing sometimes prevents parents from attempting to read her books. This is an imperfect attempt to make Charlotte's words accessible to modern parents. You may read these, print them out, share them freely--but they are copyrighted to me, so please don't post or publish them without asking.
~L. N. Laurio

School Education, Volume 3 of the Charlotte Mason Series

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Some Examples of Exams Done in the 'Parents' Review' School, Where Students are Educated On Books and Things

The Parents' Review School, a product of the Parents Union, was mostly designed to bring home schools tutored by governesses, up to the same standard as other schools. A Training College for governesses, with an Intern School, etc., was established later. Children less than six years old are not allowed to enter the School because we think that the first six years of life are needed for physical growth and the kind of self-education that children do without any help from us. The Parents' Review School is conducted using programme/schedules of lessons, in five classes, which are sent out each term, to each of the home schools (and to some other schools). The same programme/schedules are used in the Intern School. Exams are made up at the end of each term.

The work is organized using the principles that I've outlined in this volume: a broad curriculum, a considerable number of books for each child in the different classes, and, in addition to books, a couple of hours' work daily, not with Books but with Things. Many of the students in the school have absorbed the education of their parents, but the children of

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uneducated parents take to this sort of work with the same readiness and similar results. I think this kind of education is suited, not only for the clever, but for the average and even the challenged child.

Class Ia.--Six year olds go into Class Ia. (first grade); they work for 2 1/2 hours a day, but half an hour of this time is spent in exercises and games. Including drill exercises, they have thirteen 'subjects,', and a total of about sixteen books are used. They recite hymns, poems, and Bible verses; work from  Sonnenschein and Nesbitt's ABC Arithmetic; sing French and English songs; begin Mrs Curwen's Child Pianist, learn to write cursive and to print, learn to read, learn to understand and speak French, do brush-drawing and various handicrafts. All these things are done cheerfully, but can't be illustrated here. Bible lessons, read directly from the Bible; tales, nature science, and geography are taught from assigned books and supplemented with the child's own observation.

Our plan for each subject is to read the child the passage for the lesson (a good long passage), talk about it a little, avoiding too much explanation, and then let him narrate what has been read. He does this very well and with pleasure, and is often happy to catch the style as well as the words of the author.

Certain pages, maybe 40 or 50, from each of the children's books are assigned for each term's reading. At the end of the term, an exam paper is sent out containing one or two questions from each book. Here are a few of the answers. The children in the first two classes narrate their answers, and an adult writes down as they dictate. [Note: children's answers are not paraphrased, but have been left intact.]

Q. Tell the story of Naaman.

A. (aged 6 3/4):--

"Naaman had something the matter with him, and his master sent a letter to the King of Israel, and the king was very unhappy and did not know what to do because he thought that he wanted to come and fight against him, and he rent his clothes. And he said, 'I can't cure him,' so he sent him to Elisha, and he

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told him to take a lot of presents and a lot of things with him. And when Naaman came to Elisha's door, Elisha sent Gehazi to tell him to dip himself seven times in the waters of Jordan, and he said to himself, 'I surely thought he would have come out, and I thought a lot of people would come out and make a fuss'; and he went back in a rage. And his servant said to him, 'Why didn't you go?' And he said, 'My rivers are much the best.' So his servants said, 'If he had asked you to do some great thing, wouldst thou have done it?' So he went and dipped himself seven times in the water, and when he came out he was quite all right again. And when he was coming home they saw Gehazi coming, so Naaman told them to stop the horses, and so they stopped, and Gehazi said, 'There are some people come to see me, please give me some money and some cloaks,' and they were very heavy, so Naaman sent some of his men to carry them, and when he came near the house he said to his servants, 'You can go now.' Elisha said, 'Because you have done this you shall have the leprosy that Naaman had.'"

Q. Tell a fairy story.
B. (aged 6 3/4):--

"When Ulysses was coming back from Troy he passed the Sirens. He could hear them, but he couldn't get to them, because he was bound. He wanted to get to them so as he could listen to them a long time, because a lot of people had come and listened to them, and they found it so beautiful that they wanted to stay there, and they stayed till they died. His companions couldn't hear them because they stopped up their ears with wax and cotton-wool. And this was the song they sang:--

Hither, come hither and hearken awhile,
    Odysseus far-famed king,
No sailor has ever passed this way
    But has paused to hear us sing.
Our song is sweeter than honey,
    And he that hears it knows
What he never learnt from another,
    And his joy before he goes.
We know what the heroes bore at Troy
    In the ten long years of strife,
We know what happened in all the world,
    And the secret things of life.'

And then they rowed on till at last the song faded away, and they rowed on and on for a long time, and then when they could not hear them nor see them, the wax was taken out of their ears, and then they unbound Ulysses."

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Q. What have you noticed (yourself) about a spider?
C. (aged 7 3/4):--

"We have found out the name of one spider, and often have seen spiders under the microscope--they were all very hairy. We have often noticed a lot of spiders running about the ground--quantities. Last term we saw a spider's web up in the corner of the window with a spider sucking out the juice of a fly; and we have often touched a web to try and make the spider come out, and we never could, because she saw it wasn't a fly, before she came out.

"I saw the claw of a spider under the microscope, with its little teeth; we saw her spinnerets and her great eyes. There were the two big eyes in one row, four little ones in the next row, and two little ones in the next row. We have often found eggs of the spiders; we have some now that we have got in a little box, and we want to hatch them out, so we have put them on the mantelpiece to force them.

"Once we saw a spider on a leaf, and we tried to catch it, but we couldn't; he immediately let himself down on to the ground with a thread.

"We saw the circulation in the leg of another spider under the microscope; it looked like a little line going up and down."

Q. Gather three sorts of tree leaf-buds and two sorts of catkin, and tell all you can about them.
D. (aged 6):--

(1) "The chestnut bud is brown and sticky, it is a sort of cotton-woolly with the leaves inside. It splits open and sends out two leaves, and the leaves split open.

(2) "The oak twig bas always a lot of buds on the top, and one bud always dies. Where the bud starts there is a little bit of knot-wood. The oak-bud is very tiny.

(3) "The lime bud has a green side and a red side, and then it bursts open and several little leaves come out and all the little things that shut up the leaves die away.

(4) "Golden catkins and silver pussy palms of a willow tree. The golden catkins have stamens with all the pollen on them. They grow upwards, and two never grow opposite to each other. The silver pussy palms have seed boxes, with a little tube growing out, and a little sticky knob on the top. The bees rub the pollen off their backs on to the sticky knob."

Q. Tell about the North-West Passage. (Book studied, The World at Home.)

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E. (aged 7):--

"People in England are very fond of finding things out, and they wanted to find out the North-West Passage. If people wanted to go to the Pacific Ocean, they had to go round Africa, by the Cape of Good Hope, or else round South America by Cape Horn. This was a very long way. They thought they might find out a shorter way by going along the North Coast by America, and they would come out in the Pacific Ocean. They would call this way the North-West Passage. First one man and then another tried to find a way. They found a lot of straits and bays which they called after themselves. The enemy they met which made them turn back was the cold. It was in the frozen zone, and the sea was all ice, and the ice lumps were as big as mountains, and when they came against a ship they crashed it to pieces. Once a man named Captain Franklin tried over and over again to find the North-West Passage, and once he went and never came back again, for he got stuck fast in the ice, and the ice did not break, and he had not much food with him, and what he had was soon eaten up, and he could not get any more, for all the animals in that country had gone away, for it was winter, and he could not wait for the summer, when they would return. A ship went out from England called the Fox to look for him, but all they found was a boat, a Bible, a watch, and a pair of slippers near each other. After looking a lot they found the North-West Passage, but because there is so much ice there the ships can't use it."

Class lb.--Children in Class lb. (about second and third grade) are usually between seven and eight years old, but may be nine. They have fifteen 'subjects' and use as many as twenty-three books. The subjects that weren't able to be illustrated here are a continuation of the work in Class la. But by this time the children can usually read, and read some of their books for themselves some of their books for History, Geography, and Tales themselves. In Class lb. the children narrate their lessons and their answers to exams the same as in la. They seem to enjoy doing this. In fact, the exams at the end of each term are a pleasure. The only problem is that small children want to go on 'telling!.' Their words are taken down literally. It's hard not to be amazed by the correctness and copiousness of the language they use, but young children love words, and often surprise adults with their

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free and correct use of 'dictionary words.' One also notices the spirit with which the children tell their narrationse, the orderly sequence of events, the accuracy and thoroughness of detail, and the accuracy of names. These things come natural to children until they are 'schooled' out of them.

Q. Tell all you know about St Patrick. (Book studied, Old Tales from British History.)
A. (aged 7):--

"St Patrick was the son of a Scotch farming clergyman, and one day some Irish pirates came and took Patrick with them to make him a slave; and they sold him to an Irish nobleman. And the Irish nobleman made him a shepherd to take care of his flocks, and shepherds have a lot of time to think when they are out guarding their flocks by night. And Patrick was very sorry that the poor Irish were heathens. One day he slipped off and got into a boat with some sailors, and after a great adventure, for their food ran short, they arrived safely in Scotland. And Patrick was still thinking about the Irish, so he went off in a boat of his own, with a few followers, to Ireland. A shepherd saw them coming, and told his master the pirates were coming. So he armed his servants and went down to meet the pirates, but when he heard the errand they were on, he offered them to come into his house. Now Patrick settled in Ireland, but some heathen priests rose up against him, and a wise man said, 'What is the good of killing him? Other Irish people are now Christians, and they will teach too.' So he saved his life. And Patrick gave him the book of Psalms written by his own hand. One day Patrick asked a rich man if he might have a little plot of land on the top of a hill, but the rich man refused him, but gave him a little plot of land at the bottom of the hill. And there Patrick built a church, and a house for himself and servants to live in. Then the rich man got ill, and was just about to die, but got better, but as he thought Patrick was like a wizard, who could foretell his fortune, he thought he'd better try to please him. So he sent him a brass cauldron, enough to hold one whole sheep, and Patrick said 'I thank you, master.' The rich man was angry, and sent for the cauldron back again, and Patrick said, 'I thank you, master.' So the rich man was ashamed, and brought back the cauldron, and said he could have the little plot of land on the top of the hill. So they went up to measure it. Then a roe-deer dashed out of the thicket, but left her fawn behind her, and the men were going to kill the fawn, but Patrick took it up and carried it down the hill; the mother followed, for she saw he was doing no harm to it. On that place he built a fine church,

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which is still standing. And Patrick died on a journey, and was buried at a place called Downpatrick after him."

Q. Tell what you know about Alfred Tennyson. (Book studied, Mrs Frewen Lord's Tales from Westminster Abbey.)
B. (aged 7 1/2):--

"Alfred Tennyson was born in 1809, and he loved the country very much. One Sunday when they were going out to chapel, except Lord Tennyson as he was very young, his brother Charles gave him his slate to write about birds and flowers, and when they came back he had filled his slate with his first poem. He and his brother used to make up stories that sometimes lasted a month. He was very shortsighted, and when he was looking at anything it looked as if he were smelling it. He had good ears, for he could hear the shriek of a bat. Alfred Tennyson wrote The Revenge and The Siege of Lucknow, and Sir John Franklin's poem:--

'Not here; the white North hath thy bones,
    And thou, heroic sailor soul,
Art passing on thy happier voyage now,
    Toward no earthly pole.'

And he also wrote the May Queen and Cradle Song. Because his poetry was so good the Queen gave him a name and knighted him. He says that if you tread on a daisy it will turn up and get red. He was 83 years old when he died--the year he died in was 1892. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, in Poets' Comer.'

Q. What is a hero? What heroes have you heard of? Tell about one.
C. (aged 7):--

"(1) A hero is a brave man. (2) Count Roland, Huon at Bordeaux, the Horatii and Curatii. (3) Once there was a brave Emperor called Charlemagne, and he was fighting with the heathen King of Saragossa. Just a wee bit of land was left to the heathen king, so he sent a messenger to speak about peace. They pretended that they would have peace, so they went back to Charlemagne and asked him to leave Roland behind to take charge of the mountain passes. So Charlemagne said that he would leave Roland behind because there was none so brave as him, so that when Charlemagne had turned his army they should come in great numbers to fight against Roland. And Roland stayed behind with twenty thousand men, and Oliver heard a great noise by the side of Spain, and then Oliver climbed

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on a pine tree, and he saw the arms glimmering and the spears shining, and then he said to Roland that there were a full hundred thousand, and that they just had so few, and that it was much better to sound his horn and Charlemagne will turn his army. Roland said he would be mad if he did that. Oliver said again to sound his horn, and Roland said he would lose his fame in France if he did it. Then Oliver said again, 'Friend Roland, sound thy horn and Charles will hear it, and turn his army.' Then all the mountain passes were fuIl of the enemies, and when they came nearer they fought, and they fought, and they fought, and at last the Christians were falling too, and when there were only sixty left he blew his horn, Charlemagne heard it and said he must go, and Ganelon said he was just pretending, but then Charlemagne heard it fainter, and knew that it was true that he must go, and then fainter again, but Charlemagne was nearer and so heard it better. And Roland said, 'Ride as fast as you can for many men have been killed, and there are few left.' Then Charlemagne bade his men sound their horns, so that they knew that help was near and then the heathen fled away. There were just the two left, Roland and the Archbishop, and Roland said to the Archbishop that he would try to fetch the dead bodies of the braver soldiers. Then the Archbishop said to Roland, 'Quick, before I die.' Then Roland went and brought them before the Archbishop and laid them down there. Then he went and searched the field again, and under a pine tree he found Oliver's body, then he brought it too and laid it in front of the Archbishop. Then Roland fainted to the ground, then the Archbishop tried to bring some water for Roland, and he fell down and died. Then Roland put the hands over the chest of the Archbishop, then he prayed to God to give him a place in Paradise, and then he said that the field was his. Before he died he put his sword and his ivory horn under him, and laid himself down on the ground, so that Charlemagne, when he came, would know that he was the conqueror. And God sent St Michael and another saint to fetch his soul up to heaven."

Q. Gather three sorts of tree leaf-bud and two sorts of catkin and tell all you can about them.
E. (a cottage child aged 9):--

"Beech Twig.--It has rather a woody stalk, and it is a very light grey-browny stalk, and it is very thin, and the little branches that grow out are light brown and it is thicker where the buds are and it is a lighter brown up at the top than it is at the bottom, and the buds are a light reddy-brown and very pointed, and they are scaly. The bark is rather rough and there is a lot of little kind of brown spots on it.

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"Lime Twig.--It is called Ruby-budded Lime because the buds are red, and they are fat rather, and they have got some green in as well, and they come rather to a point at the top, they grow alternately and the little stalk that they grow out of is reddy-green, and the top part of the stalk is green, and it is woody, and it is rough, and it is a reddy-green at the bottom. Where the buds come out it is swelled out, the bark has come off and it has left it white and woody. At the top of one of the stalks the bud has come off.

"Sycamore Twig.--Well, the back is very woody, and it is a brown stalk and it is rough and there is a little weeny bud growing out of the side, and the buds grow out two and two, and there are a lot of little buds.

"Willow.--Well, the stalk is a dark brown, and is very smooth and it will bend very easily, and the buds when they first come on the stalk are little brown ones, and then a silvery-green comes out and there is a scale at the bottom, and then they get greyer and bigger with little green leaves at the bottom, and then it comes yellow, and there is a lot of pollen on it. If you touch it the pollen comes on your finger.

"Hazel.--Well, the stalk is a dark brown, something the colour of the willow, and it bends easily, and the buds are green and there is little scales, and then the catkins come and they grow very long, and there is a lot of little flowers in one, and there is pollen in that, and the stalk is rather rough, and there are some big buds at the top just bursting, and the leaves are coming out, and the buds are very soft and glossy, and the scales are at the bottom."

Q. What have you noticed about a thrush? Tell all you know about it.
F. (aged 8):--

"Thrushes are browny birds. They eat snails, and they take the snail in their mouths and knock it against a stone to break the shell and eat the snail. I found a stone with a lot of bits of shell round it, so knew that a thrush had been there. Where we used to live a thrush used to sing every morning on the same tree. The song of the thrush is like a nightingale. We often see a lot of thrushes on the lawn before breakfast or after a shower. They have yellow beaks and their breasts are specked with lovely yellow and brown. Once we found a thrush asleep on a sponge in a bedroom and we carried it out and put it on a tree. Thrushes eat worms as well as snails, and on the lawn they listen with their heads on one side and go along as the worm gets under the ground, and presently, perhaps, the worm comes up and they gobble it up, or they put their beaks in and

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get it. Thrushes build their nests with sticks at the bottom and line them with little bits of wool they pick up, or feathers, and they like to get down very much."

Class II.--In Class II. (about 4th-7th grade) the children are between nine and twelve years old, occasionally more than twelve. They have twenty-one 'subjects,' and about twenty-five books are used. They work from 9:00 to noon each day, with half an hour's interval for games and drill exercises. Some Latin and German (optional) are added to the curriculum. In music we continue Mrs Curwen's (Child Pianist) method and Tonic Sol-fa, and learn French, German (optional), and English songs. But I can't give details of our work here. I'll have to limit myself to illustrating only seven of the subjects on the schedule/programme. Children in Class II. write or dictate, or write a part and dictate a part of their examination answers, depending on their age. The exam lasts a week, and to write all of their work would be tiring at this age. The schedule followed is that the examination in each subject ise done during the regular time for that subject on the schedule.

I'd like to say a word about the Greek and Roman History. Plutarch's Lives are read in Classes II. and III., and as children usually spend five years in these Classes II and III, they may read as many as fifteen of these Lives, which I think stand alone in literature as teaching that a man is part of the State, that his business is to be of service to the State, but that the value of his service depends on his personal character. The Lives are read to the children almost without comment, but with necessary edits. Proper names are written on the blackboard; and, at the end of the reading, children narrate the substance of the lesson. The English History book used in Classes II. and III. is extremely popular; it is Mr Arnold-Forster's (of about 800 pages), and is well known as a serious, manly, and polished treatment of English History. There is never any writing down to the children. Mrs Creighton's First History of France is also a favorite,

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although I wouldn't have thought there was enough detail to make it popular. Contemporary periods of English and French History are studied term by term. For Natural History, Miss Arabella Buckley's Fairyland of Science and Life and Her Children, Mrs Brightwen's books, etc., give scientific information and inspire intelligent curiosity, while outdoor nature-study lays the foundation for science. The handiworks for Class II. are such as cardboard Sloyd, clay modelling, needlework, gardening, etc. These, field-work, piano practice, etc., are done in the afternoons or after tea.

Q. "Ah! Pericles, those that have need of a lamp, take care to supply it with oil." Who said this? Tell the story. (Book studied, Plutarch's Lives: Pericles.)
D. (aged 11 1/2), answer dictated:--

"Anaxagoras, the philosopher, said these words to Pericles.

"Pericles was the ruler of Athens, and Anaxagoras had taught him when a boy. Being ruler of Athens, he led a very busy life, attending to the affairs of State, and so was not able to give much time to his household affairs. Once a year he collected his money, and could only manage his income by giving out an allowance to each member of his family and household every day: this was done by Evangelus, his steward.
Anaxagoras thought this a very wrong way of arranging matters, and said that Pericles paid too much heed to bodily affairs, because he thought you ought to mind only about philosophy and spiritual doings, and not about the affairs of the world. To give an example to Pericles he gave up all his household and tried to live entirely on philosophy. But he soon found his mistake when he found himself starving and penniless, with no house. So he covered his head up and prepared to die. Pericles, hearing of this, went immediately to his rescue and begged him to live; not because he thought death a misfortune, but that he said, 'What shall I do without your help in the affairs of State!' And then Anaxagoras uttered the words which are above, meaning, of course (though putting it in a clever way), that Pericles was to keep him. On the other hand, he might have meant that he had been mistaken in his philosophy."

Q. Tell the history of 'F.D.' on a penny. (Book studied, Arnold-Forster's History of England.)

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C. (aged 10), answer written by child:--

"The letters 'F.D.' stand for the Latin words Fidei Defensor, meaning 'The Defender of the Faith.' Henry VIII. had a little while ago written a book on the Pope (who was Clement VII.) saying that the Pope was the true head of the Church, and everyone ought to obey him. The Pope was so pleased that he made Henry Fedei Defensor. It must be remembered that the king had married his brother Arthur's* widow, a Spanish princess, namely, Catherine of Aragon (sic), and as they had no son Henry wished to divorce her, but the Pope would not anow him to, as he had given Henry special leaf (sic) to marry her. At this Henry was furious, and began to think about the Pope's words, 'Defender of the Faith.' He would not act as he thought till someone suggested it. So two men, called Cromwell and Cranmer, came forward, telling the king to take the Pope's words, not as he meant them, but as they really were, as they stood. The king was delighted, and made Cranmer a bishop and Cromwell his wisest counsellor*. In 1534 Parliament* was called upon to declare Henry head of the Church. All said he was, except two men, Sir Thomas More and Fisher, bishop of Rochester; these would not agree, and were executed in 1535. If we look on a penny we see the letters 'F.D.,' which shows from the reign of Henry VIII. till now the Pope has not been allowed to interfere with England. In order to spite the Pope, Henry allowed the Lutherans and learned men to come into England."
* The writers have been in two minds about the spelling of words marked.

Q. What did you see in the Seagull sailing up the Firth of Forth? (Book studied, Geographical Reader, Book II.)
G. (aged 9), answer dictated:--

"In sailing up the Forth we first of all see Leith, which is the seaport town of Edinburgh. Then we come to Edinburgh. The old and new Edinburghs are built on opposite hills, the valley in between is laid out in lovely gardens. One thing very odd about Edinburgh is that the streets look as if they are built one on top of the other. At one end of the town there is a castle which looks so like the rocks and mountains it is built on, one can hardly distinguish it. At the other end of the town there is Holyrood, where the ancient kings used to live. We do not see many merchantmen because there are no good harbours, there are a good many fishing smacks and pleasure boats. As we go along we see women with big baskets with a strap across their foreheads, and they are calling out 'caller herrings.'"

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Q. "And Jonathan loved him as his own soul." Of whom was this said? Tell a story of Jonathan's love.
E. (aged 9), answer dictated:--

"This was said of David. Saul's anger was kindled against David; and Jonathan and David were talking together, and Jonathan had been telling David that he would do anything for him, and David said, 'To-morrow is the feast of a new moon, and Saul will expect me to sit with him at the table; therefore say, 'David earnestly asked leave of me to go to Bethlehem, his city, where there is a sacrifice of his family.' If Saul is angry, then I shall know that he would kill me, but if he is not angry, it will be all right.' Jonathan said, 'So shall it be, but it will not be safe for anybody to know anything about it; come into the field, and I will tell you what to do. Thou shalt remain hidden by the stone, and I will bring a lad and my arrows and bow, and I will shoot an arrow as if firing at a target; and if I say 'Run,' to the lad, is not the arrow beyond thee? go fetch it,' then thou shalt know that thou must flee from Saul.' David's seat was empty at the feast that night, but Saul said nothing. But the next day his seat was empty, and when Saul asked why, Jonathan told him what David had asked him to say. And. Saul's anger was kindled, so much so that Jonathan feasted not that day, for he was grieved; and next morning he went out with his bow and arrows, and the lad, and shot an arrow as if at a mark. Then Jonathan said to the lad, 'Run, is not the arrow beyond thee? haste.' Then Jonathan gave his artillery unto the lad and sent him back to the city ; and David came out of his hiding-place, and they made a covenant together, for Jonathan loved him as his own soul. Then David had to flee to Naioth in Ramah and Jonathan went back to the city."

Q. What do you know of Richelieu? (Book studied, Mrs Creighton's First History of France.)
E. (aged 10), answer partly written, partly dictated:--

"Cardinal Richeleu (sic) was brought to the French Court by the Queen mother, who thought he would do as she wished, but she was mistaken, for he no sooner was there than he turned against her, for Louse (sic) took him into his favour and made him Prime Minister after he had been there a few weeks. Richeleu (sic) was a devoted Catholic, and was determined to put down the Hugenots (sic), or Protestants as we call them, so he laid siege to La Rochelle, the chief town of the Hugenots (sic), who applied to the English for help. Charles sent a fleet to La Rochelle under pretence of helping the Hugenots (sic)*
* After this, the answer was dictated.

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but Admiral Pennington, who was in command of the ships, received orders when half way down the channel to take in French soldiers and sailors at Calais and to go to the French side. When Admiral Pennington ordered the ships to take in the soldiers, his men mutinied and he had to go back. Richelieu had thrown up earthworks across the harbour so that it was impossible to get in. Now Rochelle held out bravely, but at last it had to surrender, and out of 40,000, 140 crawled out, too weak to bury the dead in the streets. La Rochelle was razed to the ground, and never recovered its prosperity. One by one the Huguenot towns surrendered, and thus the Huguenots were destroyed. When Richelieu was made Prime Minister, the nobles did not like him, because they thought he had too much power, and now when Louis was ill, the Queen mother came to him, and in a stormy passion of tears begged Louis to send away his ungrateful servant. Louis promised he would do so, and Richelieu's fall seemed certain. Now all the nobles crowded to the Queen mother to pay their respects to her, as they thought she would now be the most important person in the Government. But one noble, who was wiser than the rest, went to Richelieu and begged to plead his cause before the King. The King promised he would keep him if he would serve him as he had done before. The Queen mother was foiled, and returned to Brussels, where she died."

Q. What towns, rivers, and castles would you see in travelling about Warwickshire? (Book studied, Geographical Reader, Book III.)
B. (aged 9 1/2), answer dictated:--

"Warwick, Kenilworth, Coventry, Stratford, Leamington, and Birmingham are all towns which you would see if you travelled through Warwick.
"The Avon stretches from north to south of Warwickshire. It has its tributary the Leam, upon which Leamington is situated.
"There is a castle of Warwick and Coventry and Kenilworth.
"Warwick is the capital of the county. It has a famous castle, whose high and lofty towers stand upon the bank of the river Avon.
"Coventry is a very old town. It also has a beautiful castle, where the fair Lady Godiva and her father used to live, about whom I suppose you have read.
"Stratford is called 'The Swan on the Avon,' because that is where Shakespeare, the great poet, was born and died, and this is a little piece of poetry about him;--

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'Where his first infant lays, sweet Shakespeare sung,
Where the last accents faltered on his tongue.'

"The river Avon takes its rise in the vale of Evesham, then winds through pleasant fields and meadows till it comes to the south of Warwickshire, and then it becomes broad and stately and flows on up to Coventry, where the Leam branches off from it (!), and then it becomes narrower and narrower until it gets out of Warwickshire and stops altogether at Naseby (!)"

Q. How many kinds of bees are there in a hive? What work does each do? Tell how they build the comb. (Book studied, Fairyland of Science.)
F. (aged 10), answer dictated:--

"Three kinds. The drones or males, the workers or females, and the queen bee. The drone is fat, the queen is long and thin, the workers are small and slim. The queen bee lays the eggs, the worker bee brings the honey in and makes the cell, and the drones wait to be fed. On a summer's day you see something hanging on a tree like a plum pudding, this is a swarm of bees. You will soon see someone come up with a hive, turn it upside down, shake the bough gently, and they will fall in. They will put some clean calico quickly over the bottom of the hive, and turn it back over on a bench. The bees first close up every little hole in the hive with wax, then they hang on to the roof, clinging on to one another by their legs. Then one comes away and scrapes some wax from under its body, and bites it in its mouth until it is pulled out like ribbon, this she plasters on the roof of the hive, then she flies out to get honey, and comes home to digest it, hanging from the roof, and in 24 hours this digested honey turns to wax, then she goes through the same process again. Next, the nursing bees come and poke their heads into this wax, bite the wax away (20 bees do this before one hole is ready to make a cell). Other bees are working on the other side at the same time. Each cell is made six-sided, so as to take up the least wax and the smallest space. When the cells are made the bees come in with honey in their honey-bag or first stomach; they can easily pass the honey back though their mouths into the cells. It takes many bees to fill one cell, so they are hard at work."

G. (aged 9), written by child:--
Composition on 'The Opening of Parliament.'

"The opening of Parliament by King Edward VII and Queen Alexander (sic) was rather grand. First, they drove to the

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Houses of Parliament in a grand state carriage which had been used by George III, and then when they got there they had to robe in a certain room in great big robes, all edged with ermine fur, and with huge trains. Queen Alexandra had an evening dress on, and King Edward a very nice kingly sort of suit (which was nearly covered up by his robes), and then they walked along to the real Houses of Parliament, where the members really sit. Then the king made a speech to open Parliment (sic), and other people made speeches too, and everything was done with grandeur and stateliness such as would befit a king. May Parliament long be his!"

Class III.--In Class III. (approximately grades 8-10) the age range is from eleven or twelve years to fifteen. The 'subjects': Bible Lessons and Recitations (Poetry and Bible passages); English Grammar, French, German, and Latin; Italian (optional); English, French, and Ancient History (Plutarch's Lives); Singing (French, English, and German Songs); Writing, Dictation, Drill Exercises; Drawing in Brush and Charcoal; Nature Science, Botany, Physiology, Geography; Arithmetic; Geometry, and Reading. About thirty-five books are used. Time spent is 3 1/2 hours a day; half an hour of this time, as said before, is for drill excersize and games. There is no preparation or home work in any of the classes. You will notice from the included examples that the papers are still written with pleasure, and show an intelligent grasp of the different subjects. Although there are errors in many of the papers, they are not often the mistakes of ignorance or stupidity, nor are they those of a person who doesn't understanod what he's writing about. 'Composition' is never taught as a subject; well-educated children write in the same way that well-raised children behave--by the light of nature. I don't think that any great writer was ever taught the art of 'composition.' The same can be said about spelling. Except for an occasional stubborn case, the habit of reading teaches spelling. All of the students of the Parents' Review School don't take all the subjects sscheduled in the programmes of the different classes. Sometimes, parents have the mistaken notion that the more subjects are studied, the heavier the workload. But in reality, the opposite is

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true, unless the hours of study are increased. Sometimes, outside lessons in languages, music, etc., interfere; sometimes, poor health will not allow more than an hour or two of work in a day. The children in the intern school do all the work scheduled, and their work compares satisfactorily with the rest,  even though the classes have the disadvantage of changing teachers every week. Children in Class III. write all of their examination work.

Q. Describe the founding of Christ's Kingdom. What are the laws of His Kingdom?
A. (aged 13):--

"Christ came to found His kingdom. He preached the laws to His people. He taught them to pray for it: 'Thy kingdom come.' And He told His chosen few to 'go and preach the Gospel of the kingdom.' He founded His kingdom in their hearts, and He reigned there. He will still found His kingdom in our hearts. He will come and reign as King. The kingdom was first founded by the sea of Galilee. 'Follow Me,' said our Lord to Andrew, and from that moment the kingdom was founded in Andrew's heart. Then there were Peter, James, John, Phillip (sic), Nathaniel (sic), and the kingdom grew. From that moment Christ never stopped His work for the kingdom--preaching and teaching, healing and comforting, proclaiming the laws of the kingdom. 'Think not that I am come to destroy the law or the prophets. I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil.' 'One jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law.' 'Whosoever shall break one of these least commandments, and shall teach men so, the same shall be called the least in the kingdom.' No commandment was to pass from the law, but there was a new commandment, a new law, and that was 'love.' 'Love your enemies.' The Pharisees could not understand it. 'Love your friends, and hate your enemies,' was their law. But Jesus said, 'Bless them that curse you, and pray for them that despitefully use you.' 'Give, hoping for nothing in return'; and, 'Whosoever shall smite thee on one cheek turn to him the other also.' Christ's law is the love which 'suffereth long and is kind. . . . seeketh not her own . . . never faileth . . . hopeth all things, endureth all things'; and 'now abideth faith, hope, and charity, these three, but the greatest of these is--love.'"

Q. Explain 'English Funds, Consols 2 3/4 per cent, 113.

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And give an account of the South Sea Bubble. (Book studied, Arnold-Forster's History of England.)

B. (aged 14 1/2):--

"This means that when the South Sea Company first appeared, the Government gave them £113 on condition that the Company should give 2 3/4 per cent, which means £2 15s. on every £100 lent, for a certain number of years. In the reign of George I. the money matters of the country were in a very bad state. The Government was very much in debt, especially to those people who had purchased annuities, and had a right to receive a certain sum of money from the Government every year as long as they lived. Sir Robert Walpole, who was then Prime Minister, was most anxious to pay off part of this debt. He heard of a Company which had just been started, called the South Sea Company, whose object was to trade in the South Seas. This was what Walpole wished for. He suggested to them that they should pay off the debt due to the people who had bought annuities, and in return the Government would give them some priveleges (sic) and charts which would be useful to them. This the Company agreed to do, but instead of paying the people in money they gave them what were called 'shares' in the South Sea Company. These shares were supposed to be very valuable; and it was thought that the South Sea Company was really prosperous, and that those who had shares in it would have most enormous profit in the end. Thousands of people came to buy shares, and some of them were so anxious to get them that they spent enormous sums of money on these worthless pieces of paper. All was well for a time, but at last the people began to wish for their money instead of the shares, and claimed it loudly from the Company. It was then that the bubble burst. It was discovered then that the Company was quite unable to pay what was due, and that all this time they had been deluding the nation by promises and giving them shares, and that they had never been the rich and prosperous Company they made themselves out to be. Naturally, the most dreadful distress prevailed everywhere, and many were absolutely ruined, so that the Government had to help those who were most distressed. At this point Sir Robert Walpole came to the rescue. He made the Bank of England pay some of the debts, and behaved with such cleverness that he saved the country almost from ruin."

Q. What do you know of the States General? (Book studied, Mrs Creighton's First History of France.)
C. (aged 12):--

"The States General met in May, 1789. The people had long wanted reforms, and been talking about them, and now on

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the 5th of May, 1789, the States General met again for the first time since 1614. If the nobles sat in one bouse, and the people in another, as was the custom, they could never get tbe changes made. So the people with their leader, the Marquis of Mirabeau, declared that they would not leave the tennis court on which they were standing till it was agreed that they could sit together with the nobles. When Louis XVI. came down in State, and told them they were to sit apart, they said they would not leave their place except at the bayonets (sic) point. When he heard this he said, 'Very well, leave them alone.' So they sat together."

Q. Show fully how Aristides acquired the title of 'The Just.' Why was it a strange title for a man in those days? (Book studied, Plutarch's Lives: Aristides.)
D. (aged 13 1/4):--

"Aristides acquired the title of 'The Just' by his justice, and because he never did anything unjust in order to become rich or powerful. While many of the judges and chief men in Athens took bribes, he alone always refused to do so, and he also never spent the public money on himself. When, after having defeated the Persians, at Platae, the Greek States decided to have a standing army, it was Aristides who was sent round to settle how much each town should contribute. And he did this so fairly and well, that all the Greek States blessed and praised his arrangement. It is said that Aristides could not only resiste (sic) the unjust claims of those whom he loved, but also those of his enemies. Once when he was judging a quarrel between two men, one of them remarked that the other had often injured Aristides. 'Tell me not that,' was the reply of Aristides, 'but what he has done to thee, for it is thy cause I am judging, not my own.' Another time when he had gone to law himself, and when, after having heard what he had to say, his judges were going to pass sentence on his adversary without having heard him, Aristides rose and entreated his judges to hear what his enemy could say in his own defence. In all that he did Aristides was inflexibly Just, and many stories were told of his justice. Though he loved his country well, he would never do anything wrong to gain for Athens some advantage, and in all he did his one aim was justice, and his only ambition to be called 'The Just.' He was so just and good, that he was called the 'most just man in Greece.' In the times in which Aristides lived, men used to care more to be called great, rich, or powerful than just. Themistocles, the great rival of Aristides, used to do all he could to become the first man in Athens, and rich as well as powerful. He did not besitate to take bribes, and all he did for the Athenians was done with a view to making himself the head of the people,

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and the first man in the State. He used often to do unjust as well as cruel things in order to get his own ends. It was the same with most other men who lived at this time, they prefered (sic) being rich, powerful or great, to being distinguished by the title of 'The Just.'"

Q, Describe a journey in Northern Italy. (Book studied, Geographical Reader, Book IV.).
E. (aged 12):--

"I am about to go for a tour round the northern part of Italy, and after I have taken a train to Savoy, which is about the south-east of France, I enter into Italy by the Cenis pass, which is very lofty, about 7,000 feet above sea level.

"On arriving in Italy, I come into the province of Piedmont, which has three mountain torrents or streams running through it. These streams join at Turin, the capital of Piedmont, and form the Po river, which flows out on the east coast of France into the Gulf of Venice, On the banks of the three mountain streams are some Protestants by the name of Waldenses, who say they are followers of the disciples, but if you ask any outsider, they will say, 'Oh! the Waldenses are followers of a good man, by the name of Waldo, who fled out of France in the 12th century!

"We will now go and see Turin, and the first thing we say is, 'What a clean town,' and so it certainly is, for it is quite the cleanest town in Italy, as the people have only to turn on the fountain taps to clean their paved streets. And after we have looked at Alessandria, where Napoleon gained his great victory, we leave Piedmont and follow up the river Po, until we come to its next tributary, the river Ticino, which runs up north into the Lake Maggiore, which is five to six miles wide and about sixty miles in length, This lake has four islands, which are named after Count Borromeo and so called the Borromean Islands, which are cultivated like gardens with terrases (sic) for resting places.

"Now let us go to Milan, which is so well known by its beautiful cathedral of white and black marble which have (sic) no less than 4000 sculptures of white marble, with pillars of Egyptian granite. Milan is famous for silks and lace to provide for the numerous palaces.

"We will now go back to the next lake, Lake Como, which is surrounded by mountains, and supposed to be the most beautiful of all lakes. At the south it goes out in a fork, and between the fork is a beautiful piece of land called Bellagia (sic).

"The next lake we come to is the Garda, the largest of all the lakes, and then we go on to the smallest of lakes called Lugano.

"We now having visited all the lakes, take a look at Lodi, the

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famous cheese market in Italy; after which we visit Verona, where Pliny the naturalist was born, also Paul Veronese. Shakespeare lays the scene of his play 'Romeo and Juliet' in Verona. The short time we have we spend at Venice, the queen of the Italian citys (sic) with its wonderful canals and the marvellous cathedral of St Mark's, also the dark, gloomy palace of the Doge."

Q. How are the following seeds dispersed:--Birch, Pine, Dandelion, Balsam, Broom? Give diagrams and observations. (Book studied, Mrs Brightwen's Glimpses into Plant Life.)
F. (aged 13):--

"The seeds of the Birch are very small, with two wings, one on each side, so that in a high wind numbers of them are blown on to high places, such as crevises (sic) on the face of a rock, or clevises (sic) on a church tower, or the tower of an old ruin. They are so light that they are carried a long way.

"The seeds of the Pine are very small, and the veins in the seed are wriggly, so that the seed is curly, which makes it whirl rapidly in the air, and the whirling motion carries it along a little way before it rests on the ground. It has two small wings.

"The seeds of the Dandilion (sic) are large, with a kind of silky parashute (sic) attached, so that when they fall off they do not fall to the ground, but are carried a little way because the wind catches the under part of the parashute (sic). The seed has a little hook at the top of it which prevents'lt from being pulled out of the ground by the parashute (sic) after it is once in.

"The Balsam seed case splits when the seeds are ripe and sends them flying in all directions, so they are far enough dispersed, and need no wings or parashutes (sic) to help them.

"The Broom seed case is a carpel, more like that of the sweet pea. When the seeds are ripe the two sides of the carpel split open and curl up like springs and send the seeds flying out, so they are dispersed without needing wings or parachutes."

Q. Describe the tissue of a potato and of a piece of rhubarb. (Book studied, Oliver's Elementary Botany.)
G. (aged 13):--

"The tissue of Rhubarb is very fibrous indeed. In fact, it is almost entirely made up of vessels. These are cells which have become tubes by the dividing cell-wall being absorbed. These vessels are very beautiful when seen under a microscope, for their walls are all thickened in some way, in order to make them

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strong enough to bear the weight of the leaf. Some are thickened by a spiral cord, which goes round and round the wall of the vessel. In some vessels this is quite tightly twisted round the wall, that is to say, the rings do not come far apart; in others it is quite loose and far apart. Another kind of thickening is by rings, which just go round the tube and are not joined to each other. Other vessels, again, have little knots in them like what there are in birch bark.

"The Potato tissue is mainly made up of starch, as it is one of the plant's storehouses, and starch is one of the plant's principal foods."

Q. Give a diagram of the eye, and explain how we see everything. (Book studied, Dr Schofield's Physiology for Schools.)
H. (aged 13):--

"The eye can be likened to a camera, and the brain to the man behind the camera. The image enters at the hole, passes through the lens, is reflected on the plate, but the camera does not see, it is the man behind the camera who sees. In the same way, the image passes in at the pupil and through the lens, both sides of which are curved, and can be tightened or slackened according to the distance of the image. Then the image passes along the nerve of sight to the two bulbs in the brain which see. If you hold a rounded glass between a sheet of paper and the image at the right distance (for the glass cannot tighten or slacken like our lens), you will see the image reflected upside-down on the paper. This is the way the lens acts. There is a small yellow spot a little below the middle of the back of the eye; here the sight is more acute, and so, though we can see lots of things at one time, we can only look at one thing at a time. There is a blind spot where the nerve enters the eye (which shows that the nerve of sight itself is blind) so that some part of every image is lost, like a black dot punched in it. But we are so used to it that we cannot see it.

Q. Describe your favourite scene in Waverley.
I. (aged 12 1/2):--

"A Highland Stag Hunt.--The Highland Cheifs (sic) were in various postures: some reclining lazily on their plaids, others stalking up and down conversing with one another, and a few were already seated in position for the sport. MacIvor was talking with another Cheif (sic) as to what the sport would be; but as they talked in Gaelic, Edward had no part in the conversation, but sat looking at the scene before him. They were

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seated on a low hill at the head of a broad valley which narrowed into a small opening or cleft in the hills at the extreme end. It was hemmed in on all sides by hills of various heights. It was through this opening that the beaters were to drive the deer. Already Waverly (sic) could hear the distant shouts of the men calling to each other coming nearer and nearer. Soon he could distinguish the antlers of the deer moving towards the opening like a forest of trees stiped (sic) of their leaves. The sportsmen prepared themselves to give them a warm reception, and all were ready as the deer entered the valley.

"They looked very ferocious, as they advanced towards where Edward and the cheifs (sic) were standing and seemed as if they were determined to fight; the roes and weaker ones in the centre, and the bulls standing as if on defence. As soon as they came within range, some of the cheifs (sic) fired, and two or three deer came down. Waverly (sic) also had the good fortune (and also the skill) to bring down a couple and gain the aplause (sic) of the other sportsmen. But the herd was now charging furiously up the valley towards them. The order was given to lie down, as it was impossible to stem the coming wave of deer; but as it was given in Gaelic it conveyed no meaning to Edward's mind, and he remained standing.

"The heard (sic) was now not fifty yards from him; and in another minute he would have been trampled to death; but Maclvor at his own risk, jumped up and literaly (sic) dragged him to the ground just as the deer reached them. Edward had a sensation as if he was out in a severe hail storm, but this did not last long.

"When they had passed, and Edward attempted to rise, he found that besides a number of bruises he had also severely sprained his ancle (sic), and was unable to walk, or even stand. A shelter was soon made for him out of a plaid in which he was laid; and then Maclvor called the Highland doctor or herbalist, to attend him. The doctor approached Edward with every sign of humiliation, but before attending to his ancle (sic), he insisted upon walking slowly round him several times, in the direction in which the sun goes, muttering at the same time a spell over him as he went, and though Waverly (sic) was in great pain he had to submit to his foolery. Waverly (sic) saw to his great astonishment that Maclvor believed or seemed to believe in the old man's cantations (sic). At last, when he had finished his spells, which he seemed to think more necessary than the dressing, he drew from his pocket a little packet of herbs, some of which he applied to the sprained ancle (sic) and after it had been bound up, Edward felt much relieved. He rewarded the doctor with some money, the value of which seemed to exceed his wildest imaginations, for he heaped so many blessings upon the head

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of Waverly (sic) that MacIvor said, ' A hundred thousand curses on you,' whereupon he stopped."

Class IV.--Girls are usually in Class IV. (about 10th-12th grade) for two or three years, from age fourteen or fifteen to seventeen, after which they are ready to specialize and usually do well. The schedule/programme for Class IV. is especially interesting. It adds Geology and Astronomy to the sciences that are studied, more advanced Algebra to the Mathematics, and uses the history of Modern Europe instead of French history. The literature, to illustrate the history, includes the reading of a good many books, and the German and French books illustrate the history studied when possible. All the books (about forty) are of a different calibre from those used in the lower classes--they are books for intelligent students.

I think you will see that due growth has taken place in the minds of the girls, regarding both judgment and ability to appreciate. I don't think the intelligence has changed,--

"Love has no infancy, nor does the mind."

But as our concern is with boys and girls under twelve. It will be enough to demonstrate by showing two or three exam papers that this kind of education by books results in intelligence.

Q. For what purpose were priests instituted? (Book studied, Dr Abbot's Bible Lessons.)
A. (aged 15 1/2):--

"The system of the Jewish priesthood was almost entirely symbolical. God ordained it, we believe, to lead the primitive mind of his chosen people onwards and upwards, to the true belief and earthly comprehension of that great sacrifice, by the grace of which we are all now honoured to become 'kings and priests unto God.' In the earliest times of the patriarchs, there was in every holy and honourable Jewish family some voluntary priest to offer up the burnt offerings and yearly sacrifices. We have an example of this in Job the patriarch, who, we read, ministered to his family in the capacity of priest of their offerings. In the wilderness, however, God commanded through Moses the foundation of a separate and holy priesthood to minister in His

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Tabernacle and offer His appointed sacrifices. The tribe of Levi and the family of Aaron were set apart for this purpose, and in the building of the tabernacle, and the annointing (sic) of Aaron and his four sons, the cornerstone was laid to that great building which became a fit dwelling for the presence of God and the heart of Israel, until Christ came to change and lighten the world; and the symbol and the shadow became the truth."

Q. "His power was to assert itself in deeds, not words." Write a short sketch of the character of Cromwell, discussing the above statement. (Book studied, Green's Shorter History of the English People.)
B. (aged 15):--

"Cromwell was no orator. It has been said that if all his speeches were taken and made into a book, it would seem simply a pack of nonsense. In Parliament though, the earnestness with which he spoke attracted attention. His deeds proved his innate power, which could not express itself in words. He may be called the inarticulate man. In his mind, everything was clear, and his various actions proved his purposes and determinations, but in speaking, he simply brought out a hurried volume of words, in the mazes of which one entirely lost the point meant to be implied. Cromwell also was more of an administrator than a statesman, unspeculative and conservative. He was subject to fits of hypocondria (sic), which naturally had some effect on his character. He considered himself a servant of God, and acted accordingly. Undoubtedly he was under the conviction that he was carrying out the Lord's will in all he did. He was not in calm moods a bloody man, but when his anger was kindled he would spare no one. At times be would be filled with remorse for the part he had taken in the martyrdom of the king; then, again be would say it was the just punishment of heaven on Charles. In giving orders his words were curt and to the point, but in making speeches he adopted the phraseology of the Bible, which added to their ambiguity. One would think he was ambitious, for at one time he asked Whitelock: 'What if a man should take upon himself to be king?' evidently having in view the regal power, and yet according to his own assertion he would rather have returned to his occupation as a farmer, than have undertaken the government of Britain. But in this, as in other acts, he recognised the call of God, (as he thought) and obeyed it."

Q. What do you know of the Girondins? (Book studied, Lord's Modern Europe.)

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C. (aged 17):--

"The Girondins were the perhaps most tolerant and reasonable of the revolutionary parties. They were a body of men who found the government of France under the king more than they could stand, and who were the first to welcome any changes, but were shocked and horrified at the dreadful riots and massacres which followed the fall of the throne. Such a party, representing justice and reform, could not be popular with the more violent Jacobins and like clubs. The day came when these latter were in power, and all the Girondins were thrown into prison.

"They were all taken from prison before the Court of Justice for trial, and placed before the judge, where they sat quite silently; they were one by one condemned to execution, receiving the sentence of death with perfect calmness. Only their leader was seen to fall down; one of his companions leant over him and said: 'What, are you afraid?' 'Non,' was the answer, 'Je mours,' he had stabbed himself with his dagger.

"As the Girondins marched back to their cells, condemned to die the next morning, they all sang the 'Marseillaise,' as they had arranged, to tell their fellow-prisoners what the sentence had been. When they reached the prison a splendid supper was placed for them, and they all sat down with great cheerfulness to eat it, none of them showing the least signs of breaking down. Towards morning priests were sent to them, and very early in the day they all marched to the foot of the guillotine, singing as they went. They kept on singing a solemn chant when the executions commenced, which became fainter and fainter as one by one they were beheaded, until all were gone."

Q. Distinguish between arrogant and presumptuous, interference and interposition, genuine and authentic, hate and detest, loathe and abhor, education and instruction, apprehend and comprehend, using each word in a sentence. (Book studied, Trench's Study of Words.)
E. (aged 15):--

"A man who is 'arrogant' is a man who has right to what he wants, but who is harsh and exacting in taking it. A 'presumptuous' man is a man who expects more than is due and takes it. 'Judge Jeffries was an arrogant old man.' 'Charles II. was a presumptuous king, he thought he could have absolute power.' " 'Interference,' is not minding your own business, and meddling with other people's when we are not wanted. 'Interposition' is more the' doing good by interfering' as protecting a little boy from a bully. 'But for the interference of James all

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would have gone well.' 'Thanks to the interposition of Mary a quuarrel was averted.'

"Genuine' means real, true, what it seems to be a--'a real genuine ruby.' 'Authentic,' in speaking of a book, means really written by the author to which it is ascribed. 'Dickens' Oliver Twist is certainly authentic.'

"You would 'hate' a man who killed your father. 'Charles II. hated Cromwell.' You would 'detest' a man who had not done you any personal injury, but who (sic) you knew to be a murderer. 'Yeo detested the Spaniards.'

"You would 'loathe' a poisonous snake or a hypocrite. 'David Copperfield loathed Uriah Heep.' You would abhor a man inferior to you in intellect or principles, as a great king would 'abhor' a cringing coward, leave him behind, go on without him, refuse to listen to him. 'Napoleon abhorred the traitor.'

"'Education' is the lessons you receive as a matter of course, as French, writing, grammar. 'Instruction' is this, but more also, it includes moral teaching, the teaching of honesty, and the teaching of gentleness. 'Henry had a good education.' 'No well-instructed Britain (sic) is a coward.'"

'Apprehend' is to see, or hear, and notice. 'Comprehend' is to understand, without seeing or hearing perhaps. 'Phillip apprehended that danger was near, but he did not comprehend it.'"

Q. Give shortly Carlyle's estimate of Burns, showing what he did for Scotland, and what was the cause of his personal failure in life. (Book studied, Carlyle's Essay on Burns.)
F. (aged 17):--

"Carlyle looked upon Burns as one of the nicest of men and greatest of poets; rather a weak man, perhaps, but covering all his faults with his genius and kindness of heart, clever and persevering, and basely neglected and shunned by his contemporaries. It is quite extraordinary to read the world-famous poems of this poet, and to remember that he was a ploughman, and surrounded only by the most uneducated peasants and fellow-labourers, though, of course, the life of a ploughman in the hills of Scotland is far more likely to encourage poetry and reflection than the life of many a London dentist or hair-dresser far higher in rank; but it is easy to believe in fact, that Burns would have found inspirations for his genius in a flat sandy waste or a grocer's shop, and, as Carlyle says, a man or woman is not a genius unless they are extraordinary, not really inspired if such a person could have been imagined before. Robert Burns has provided Scotland for centuries at least, with plenty of national poetry, his poems are such as can be enjoyed,

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like flowers and trees and all things really beautiful, by old and young, stupid and clever, fishermen and prime ministers--surely that is a work of which any man would be proud!

"Burns (sic) chief fault, if fault it can be called, and the cause of his failure in life, seems to have been a sort of bitterness against people more fortunate than himself without the art of hiding it. This, real or affected, seems very common in poets, and such an inspired man, a man with a mind greater than kings, must have felt very deeply, almost without knowing it, the 'unrefinedness' of the people he loved best, and his own distance from the admirers who clustered round him later in life.

"All his life, it seems, he was in a place by himself, now spending his time with his own family, acting a part all day, trying to make his relations feel him an equal, pretending to take a great interest in what he did not care for--the pigs, and cows, and porridge, seeing his own dearest friends looking at him with awe, and feeling him something above them, thinking of his 'great' friends, and feeling embarrassed when he came, and more at ease without his presence.

"Now, on the other hand, associating with people, high in rank and education, enjoying their friendship and praise, but feeling, be they ever so kind and familiar, that he was not their equal by birth, and that they could not treat him quite as such, however hard they might try, turning familiarity in his mind into slights, and kindness into condescension. This to a proud man must have been misery, and Burns must have been very lonely in a crowd of companions, thronged with admirers, but without a friend.

"Nobody understood Burns; he shared his opinions with no one he knew. When, at the beginning of the French Revolution he expressed his delight and approval, the people who admired him were shocked, refused to speak to him, and regarded him either as mad or terribly wicked. His poems were not admired as much as they deserved to be, he had hardly any money, was never likely to get on in the world, was shunned and disgraced, and began, as a last resource,* to drink too much. Ill health was one of his misfortunes, and this intemperance killed him.
* The writers have been in two minds about the spelling of words marked.

"Thus died at the age of thirty-seven, poor, friendless, despised, the man who has given pleasure to thousands, and an undying collection of poems and songs to his country."

Q. Give some account, as far as you can in the style of Carlyle, of the Procession of May 4th. (Book studied, Carlyle's French Revolution.)

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G. (aged 14 1/2):--

"See the doors of Notre Dame open wide, the Procession issuing* forth, a sea of human faces that are to reform France. First come the nobles in their gayly (sic) tinted robes, next the clergy, and then the commons, the Tiers Etats in their slouched hats firm and resolute, and lastly the king, and the Oeuil-de-boeuf, these are greeted by a tremendous storm of vivats. Vive le roi! Vive la nation! Let us suppose we can take up some coigne (sic) of vantage from which we can watch the procession, but with eyes different from other eyes, namely with prophetic eyes. See a man coming, striding at the head of the Tiers Etats, tall and with thick lips and black hair, whose father and brother walk among the nobles. Close beside walks Doctor Guillotin,* learned Doctor Guillotin,* who said, 'My friends (mes amis), I have a machine that will whisk off your heads in a second, and cause you no pain,' now doomed for two years to see and hear nothing but guillotin, and for more than two centuries after yonder a desolate ghost on this (sic) of the Styx. Mark, too, a small mean man, a sea-green man with sea-green eyes, Robespierre by name, a small underhand secretary walking beside one Dantun (sic) tall and massive, cruelty and vengeance on their faces. We may not linger longer, but one other we must note, one tall and active with a cunning air, namely, Camille Desmouellins (sic), one day to rise to fame and the next to be forgotten.
* The writers have been in two minds about the spelling of words marked.

"Many more walk in that procession one day to become famous, Bailli, future president of a New Republick (sic), and Marat, with Broglie the War God and others.

"The Tiers Etats with Mayor Bailli march to the rooms where they are to sit, but the doors are shut: there is sound of hammering within.

"Mayor Bailli knocks, and wants to know why they are shut out? It is the king's orders. He wants his papers. He may come in and get them, and with this they must be content.

"They swarm to Versailles, the king steps out on the balconny (sic) and speaks. He says the room is being prepared for his own august presence; a platform is being erected, he says he is sorry to inconvience (sic) them; but he is afraid they must wait, and with that he retires. Meanwhile patriotism consults as to what had best be done. Shall they meet on the palace steps? or even in the streets? At length they adjourn to the tennis court, and there patriotism swears one by one to be faithful to the New National Assembly, as they now name themselves. This is known as the Oath of the Tennis Court."

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I've given examples of part of thirty students' work to illustrate their education by books. It isn't necessary to speak of their education by Things: that is thorough and systematic. But I'd like point out that what's been shown average work. I don't know if you think that I have proved my point, the point that 'studies'--schoolroom studies--'are for delight, for ornament, and for ability.'


What a Child Should Know at Twelve Years Old

As a way to encourage school officials (whether they're private schools, preparatory schools, girls' schools, or 'Lower' schools) to seriously consider whether they might introduce this method of Education by Books, let me list a few considerations:--

1. The cost of the books per student for a six year education--from ages six to twelve--does not average more than £1 (less than two dollars) per year. A schedule of work for elementary schools could be arranged for much less per year for books.
2. 2.5 hours a day for Class I., to 3.5 hours a day, for Class III., is plenty of time for this kind of a book education.
3. A lot writing is unnecessary because the students have the information in their books and they know where to find it.
4. Classes II. and III. are able to keep themselves busy, studying with pleasure and productivity.
5. Teachers are relieved of the drudgery of having to make so many corrections.
6. The students have the afternoons free for handicrafts, nature-work, walks, games, etc.
7. The evenings are free, whether students are at school or at home, for reading aloud, choral singing, hobbies, etc.
8. The students gain many intelligent interests, start hobbies, and have plenty of time for them.

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9. There is no stressful cramming for term exams. The students know their lessons, and they find it easy to answer questions that are designed to find out what they know, instead of what they do not know.
10. Children of any age, no matter how they were taught previously, take up this sort of work enthusiastically.
11. Children taught in this way approach ordinary school work, preparation for exams, etc., with intelligence, enthusiasm, and success.

The six years' curriculum--from ages six to twelve--that I suggest, should and does result in the ability of the students--

(a) To grasp the gist of a rather long passage at a single reading: and to narrate the substance of what they've read or heard.
(b) To spell, and express themselves in writing easily and fairly correctly.
(c) To give a sequenced and detailed account of any subject they've studied.
(d) To describe in writing what they've seen, or heard from the newspapers.
(e) They should be familiar with the common objects nature in their environment, and have the ability to paint some of these in brushwork.
(f) Should have skill in various handicrafts, such as cardboard Sloyd, basket-making, clay-modelling, etc.
(g) In Arithmetic, they should have some knowledge of simple and decimal fractions, percentage, household finances, etc.
(h) Should have a knowledge of basic Algebra, and should have done some practical exercises in Geometry.
(i) Of Elementary Latin Grammar, they should read fables and easy stories, and, perhaps, one or two books of 'Caesar.'
(j) They should have some ability to understanding spoken French, and be able to speak a little; and to read an easy French book without a dictionary.
(k) In German, pretty much the same as in French, but with less progress.
(l) In History, they will have gone through a rather detailed study of English, French, and Classical (Plutarch) History.
(m) In Geography they will have studied the map of the world in detail, and have been at one time able to fill in the landscape, industries, etc., from their studies, of each region of the map.
(n) They will have learned the fundamental elements of Physical Geography, Botany, Human Physiology, and Natural History/science, and will have read interesting books on some of these subjects.
(o) They should have some knowledge of English Grammar.
(p) They should have a considerable knowledge of Biblical History and the text of the Bible.

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(q) They should have learned a good deal of Scripture and of Poetry, and should have read some Literature.
(r) They should have learned to sing using the Tonic Sol-fa method, and they should know a number of English, French, and German Songs.
(s) They should have learned Swedish Drill and various drills and calisthenic exercises.
(t) In Drawing they should be able to sketch common household and field objects with paintbrush or charcoal; they should be able to express ideas in a general way; and they should be acquainted with the works of some artists by using reproductions.
(u) In Music, their knowledge of theory and their ear-training should keep pace with their ability to make music.

This is the kind of progress that an average student of twelve should have made under a teacher with knowledge and ability. Progress in the disciplinary subjects, such as languages and mathematics, depends entirely on the knowledge and ability of the teacher.


Examination of a Twelve-Year-Old Child in the 'Parents' Review' School, Tested on One Term's Work

Maybe a complete copy of answers to an exam will be of use in showing the all-round progress of a student who has been educated using the principles I've proposed. This paper is not unusually exceptional, [A large number of complete sets of examination answers may be seen at the office, and further information can be had from the Secretary, P.N.E. U., 26 Victoria Street, London, S. W.] and some weakness will be noticed in what I've called the disciplinary subjects [there are some technical errors - spelling, etc].

The Term Programme/Schedule on which the Exam is based:

Bible Lessons.
The Bible for the Young, by the Rev. J. Paterson Smyth (Sampson, Low, 2s.), Genesis, Lessons xvii.-xxiv.,

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S. Matthew, Lessons xvi.-xxiv., and the Lesson on Christmas. Teacher to prepare lesson beforehand, and to use the Bible passages in teaching. Answers to Catechism with explanations from the beginning to the Lord's Prayer (optional).

Learn two passages of 20 verses each from chapters in Bible Lessons. Learn The Death of the Duke of Wellington; The Charge of the Light Brigade; You ask me Why.

French. [Where the Gouin Series are not taken, French, German, and Italian should be taught orally, teacher repeating aloud, pupil reciting after her.]
The Gouin Series; A Study of French, by Eugene & Duriaux (Edition 1898, Macmillan & Co., 3s. 6d.), pages 184, 194, 196, 198; teacher study preface. Premiere Annee Grammaire, par P. Larousse, Rules 61, 63, 64, 66, 70, 74, Exercises 55, 58, 61, 63. Read the first half of Le General Dourakine, par Mdme. de Segur (Hachette, Is.), parse two pages. Learn a poem from Recueil de Poesies, par Mdme. de Witt (Hachette, 2s.).

German. [Where the Gouin Series are not taken, French, German, and Italian should be taught orally, teacher repeating aloud, pupil reciting after her.] Eight sections of the Gouin Series; (or, translate into English and retranslate into German pages 1-8 from Niebuhr's Heroengeschichten (Clarendon Press, Is. 6d.). Book of Ballads on German History (University Press, 2s.); two ballads to be learnt by heart. First German Book, by A. L. Becker (Hachette, Is.), Lessons xxvii-xxxv. Use the words, from the lists of useful words, in sentences. Beginners read from Part II., reading lessons, §§ 16-23. Practise letters on pages xiii.-xvi.

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Ex-Students of House of Education, six of the Gouin Series. Twelve grammar rules exemplified in Series. Teachers use Perini's Italian Conversation Grammar (Hachette, 4s.).

Young Beginners' Third Latin Book (Murray, 2S.), pages 9-15. Revise back work by means of exercises. Young Beginners' Second Latin Book (Murray, 2s.), pages 60-71.
Beginners.--Hall's Child's First Latin Book (Murray, 2s.), 15-32; or, better, A First Latin Book, by E. H. Scott and F. Jones (Blackie, Is. 6d.), pages 1-32.

English History.
A History of England, by H. O. Arnold-Forster (Cassell, 5s.), pages 719-758 (1820-1897). Read Scott's Lady of the Lake, and, if possible, Henry Kingsley's Valentin (Ward, Lock & Co.).

French History.
Creighton's First History of France (Longmans, 3s. 6d.), pages 279-293, to be contemporary with English history.

Roman History.
Plutarch's Romulus, teacher omitting unsuitable parts (Cassell's National Library, 3d.).

Geikie's Physical Geography (Macmillan, Is.), pages 108-131, §§ 224-270. London Geographical Readers (Stanford), Book V. (2s. 6d.), pages 238-267, with special reference to recent events; map questions to be answered from map and then from memory, and then in filling up blank map from memory before each

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Lesson. Know something about foreign places coming into notice in the current newspapers. Ten minutes' exercise on the map of the world every week. The School Atlas, edited by H. O. Arnold-Forster (37 Bedford Street, London, IS. 6d or 3s.). Read also Arnold-Forster's History of England, chapters lxxv. and lxxvi.

English Grammar.
Morris's English Grammar (Macmillan, Is.), pages 100-108, 98-99 (inclusive). Parse and analyse, using pages 109-125. Work from Morris's English Grammar Exercises (Macmillan, Is.).

Three French songs, La Lyre ties Ecoles (Curwen & Son). Three German songs, Erk's Deutsclter Liederschatz (Peters, Leipsic). Three English songs, Novello's School Songs, Vol. xx. (8eL). Stainer's Primer of Tonic Solfa (Curwen & Son).

Choose and transcribe ten poems or passages from Wordsworth. German Copybook, No. I. (Nutt, 4d.). A New Handwriting for Teachers, by M. M. Bridges (Mrs Bridges, Yattenden, Newbury, 2s. 9d); work to page 6, following instructions.

Grecian Exercises and Marching Drills from Musical Drills for the Standards (Philip & Son, 2s. 6d.). Ex-Students, House of Education Drills.

Growth and Greatness of our World-wide Empire, pages 32-77 (four or five pages a week) to be prepared, a passage dictated, or, occasionally, written from memory.

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Pour Dessiner Simplement, par V. Jacquot et P. Ravoux (3S. 6d.), cahier ii., iii., for occasional use. Twelve wild fruits on their branches, with background, in brushwork; illustrations in brush-drawing from The Lady of the Lake. Study and be able to describe the pictures in The Holy Gospels, Part II. (S.P.C.K., Is. 8d.) (optional);
or, Join the Portfolio of Paintings (see The Children's Quarterly) ;
or, Follow the Fesole Club Papers.

Natural History.
Keep a Nature Note-Book. Geikie's Geology (Macmillan, Is.), pages 125-144 (mountains), with questions. Refer to in holidays, and study in term, Lowly Water Animals, Lessons 1-21, inclusive.

Oliver's Elementary Botany (Macmillan, 4s. 6d.), chapter vii., pages 63-87. Glimpses into Plant Life, Brightwen (Fisher Unwin, 2s.), chapters v. and ix. Record the finding of and describe twenty wild fruits (see Oliver). Specimens must be used in all botanical work. Observe all you can about the structure of various fruits (not edible), and about the dispersion of seeds. Plant Life in Field and Garden, by A. Buckley, pages 40-80.

Schofield's Physiology for Schools (Cassell, Is. 9d.), pages 43-64.

Mair's Mental Arithmetic (Sonnenschein, 9d.). Longman's Junior School Arithmetic (Is.), chapters xxi. and xxii., Practice and Bills. Miscellaneous examples from pages 192 and 193.
Beginners.--chapters xvii., xviii., and xix., §§ 74-81.

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A First Step in Euclid, by J. G. Bradshaw (Macmillan, Is. 6d.), pages 63-81.
Beginners.--Inductive Geometry, by H. A. Nesbitt, M.A. (Sonnenschein, Is. 6d.), chapters iv., v., vi.
Members who have Hamblin Smith's Euclid may continue to use it. The books now set are more modern and lead to more intelligent work.

Geography, English history, French history, and tales should afford exercise in careful reading. Poetry should be read daily.

Read on Thursdays and write from memory on Tuesdays (a) a passage from Ecce Homo, Ecce Rex, Part II., chapters ii. and iit, by Mrs R. Charles (S.P.C.K., 3s. 6d.); (b) Amold-Forster's History of England, chapter Ixxvii.

Attend to garden. Bent Iron Work, by F. J. Erskine (Upcott Gill, IS.). Make six models. SeIf-Teaching Needlework Manual, edited by S. Loch (Longmans, Is.), pages 25-54. Make a baby's crochet petticoat with body part. Make a linen book cover, with design drawn and worked by yourself.

N.B.--For illustrations for History, Geography, etc., see the catalogue of the Perry Pictures (Art for Schools Association, 46 Great Ormond Street, London, 3d.).

Children who are beginners or who have just been moved up from Class II., or who find the work difficult, may omit three subjects.


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Exam Questions Based on the Preceding Programme.

Bible Lessons.
I. 1. Show how God trained Joseph for his work. What lessons may we learn from Joseph (a) in prison, (b) in a palace?
   2. (a) "I am Joseph," (b) "Bless the lads," (c) "Until Shiloh come." Give the context in each case, and describe the occasions on which these words were used.
II. 1. Tell the parable (a) of the Fig-tree, (b) of the Two Sons. What lessons may we learn from each?
   2. (a) "Shall I crucify your King?" (b) "He.... wept bitterly," (c) "He is risen." Give the context (in the Bible words if possible) of each of these quotations.

Father to choose two passages, of ten verses each, from the Bible Lessons, and a poem.

1. Write down in French the names of things that a huntsman uses for the chase.
2. Recite the poem learned.
3. Write in French a short resume of the chapters read in Le General Dourakine.
4. Make sentences to show the use of cette, ces, ce, cet, leurs, ses, tel, chaque, meme, nul.

1. Say three sections of a Gouin Series, and translate into English and retranslate into German page 6, lines 14-24, from Heroengeschichten.
2. Translate into German :-- (a) Which of these flowers is the finest? (b) I have been once in Berlin and three times in Paris.

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3. Make sentences with other adjectives, using the German for 6, 15, 17, 9, 4, 18.

Recite two Series, and give two rules exemplified.

1. Translate into English and retranslate into Latin Fable V., page 61, and parse each word in the first sentence.
2. Translate into Latin :-- (a) We dream whole nights; (b) I will teach you music; (c) The Roman people elected Numa king; (d) The Gauls dwell on this side the Rhine; (e) The master sees that many boys play. What rule is illustrated in each sentence?
Beginners-- Translate into Latin:-- (a) Where is the shield? (b) A narrow shield is bad; (c) The hen is small.
2. Make sentences using the words hic, porta, augusta, duo, capita, dux, quattuor, qui, sumus, murum, vident.

English History.
1. What do you know of the Anti-Corn Law League, and what have you heard or read about a similar agitation in this country to-day?
2. What reasons induced each of the five countries engaged to enter on the Crimean War? Give some account of the war.
3. "It was felt by all . . . that the government of India . . . could not be left in the hands of the East India Company." Why? Give some account of the events which led up to this.

French History.
1. Write shortly the history of the war with Prussia.
2. Describe the new constitution of 1875.

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Roman History.
1. "Sardians to be sold." Who said this? Tell the story.
2. How did Romulus unite the Romans and the Sabines?

1. Describe, with a map, a visit to the West Indies. What recent event in these islands do you know of?
2. Write a short description of (a) Mexico, and (b) a Brazilian forest.
3. What is meant by saying, "The gates of the pathways of the sea are in the hands of the British race"? Illustrate with a map.
4. How are coral reefs formed? Give a diagram of one. Describe, with diagrams, a volcano.

English Grammar.
1. Analyse, parsing the words in italics:--
     One by one the flowers close,
     Lily and dewy rose
     Shutting their tender petals from the moon.
    The grasshoppers are still; but not so soon
     Are still the noisy crows.
2. Make sentences, showing the different ways in which the following may be used:--dying, making, t tell, but.
3. Give some words with each of the following prefixes:--epi, hypo, cata, di, syn.

Father to choose an English, a French, and a German song, and three Tonic Sol-fa exercises.
* Subjects thus indicated to be marked by the parents according to Regulations.

Write ten lines of Tennyson's from memory.

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Drill, before parents.

Growth and Greatness of our World-Wide Empire, page 43, "Not. . . . home."

Father to choose unseen poem.
* Subjects thus indicated to be marked by the parents according to Regulations.

(a) Paint a carrot, an onion, and a potato grouped together, (b) an illustration in brushdrawing of a scene from The Lady of the Lake, (c) a glove, a trowel, and a rake in charcoal.

Natural History.
1. Describe (a) six sea (or pond) creatures you found this last summer, (b) the Foraminiferae. How do sponges grow? Give a diagram.
2. What do we know of the origin of mountains? Describe any formation you have examined this term--in cliff, river basin, or quarry.

1. Give rough diagrams showing the manner of growth, with leaf buds, of the twigs of the following trees:--oak, ash, horse-chestnut, beech, sycamore.
2. Compare the fruits of the raspberry, strawberry, and blackberry, with diagrams.
3. What are some of the ways in which plants store food? Give examples.

1. What are the functions of the skin? Give a diagram of the skin cells.

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1. Find, by Practice, the cost of I ton 2 cwt. 2 qrs. and 20 lbs. at £1, 13s. 10d. per cwt.
2. Find the cost of 4959 balls at 11 3/4d. each.
3. How much property tax should I pay on £5238, IOs. 0d. at 8 1/2d. in the £?
4. Make out an invoice for 5 pairs of stockings at Is. 3 1/2d. per pair; 40 needles at 13 1/2d. per score; 96 buttons at 6 1/2d. a dozen; 6 3/4 yds. silk at 5s. I0d. a yard.
1. Find the G.C.M. of 12321 and 54345, and the L.C.M. of 12, 18, 30, 48, and 60.
2. Reduce: 11385/16335, 96679/119427.
3. Find the sum of the quotient and remainder when 36789241 is divided by 365.

1. To bisect a given finite straight line.
2. To draw a straight line perpendicular to a given straight line of unlimited length from a given point without it.
3. Divide a given angle into four equal parts.
1. Prove that the two angles of a triangle are always less than two right angles.
2. Draw a kite consisting of an equilateral triangle and an isosceles triangle twice the height.
3. The latitude of London is 51 1/2 degrees N. How far is it from the South Pole?

Write some account of-- (a) Recent events with regard to Korea and Macedonia;
or, (b) (a) Scott, or (b) Burns, and his work.

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(c) Write twenty lines on "An Autumn Evening" in the metre of The Lady of The Lake.

Outside friend to examine.

* Subjects thus indicated to be marked by the parents according to Regulations.

P. Q., aged 12. CLASS III.

List of Subjects taken.

Bible Lessons.
English History.
French do.
Roman do.
English Grammar.
Natural History.

All the questions were answered in the subjects that the student had taken; a few of the answers are omitted here for reasons of space. The maps and diagrams are rather well done, but cannot be reproduced. The student's spelling, pointing, etc. have been carefully preserved.

Bible Lessons.
1. 2. (a) "I am Joseph, your brother, whom ye sold into Egypt." These words were spoken by Joseph when he was revealing himself to his brethren. His brothers had come down into Egypt a second time to buy food, and had persuaded their father Jacob to let them take Benjamin down with them, because Joseph had told them that they must. So Jacob reluctantly let Benjamin go. And now they had bought their corn, and actually been asked to dine with Joseph, and were on their homeward way, when some

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officers of Joseph's household come galloping after them, and angrily ask whether the way to return hospitality is to steal Joseph's cup, his favourite silver cup. Then when the cup is found in Benjamin's sack, Judah, who has promised to be surety for him, begs that he may be a slave to Joseph instead of Benjamin, as he promised Jacob his father to bring him back safe. Then they are all taken in to see Joseph, and he cannot stand it any longer, and bursts into tears, and says "I am Joseph; doth my father yet live?" 'And his brethren could not answer him for they were troubled at his presence. And Joseph said unto his brethren "Come near to me, I pray you." And they came near. And he said "I am Joseph your brother whom ye sold into Egypt.'" So then of course they believed him, and everything was made all right.

(c) Jacob lay on his death-bed with his sons around him, listening to his words which seemed to come straight from God. But instead of Reuben, as the first-born getting the best or most wonderful blessing, he seems to have been put below Judah, who is told that he shall be "a fruitful bough," and shall remain "Until Shiloh come." This seems to be a wonderful inspiration in Jacob that someone should come from the descendants of his son Judah who "should save His people from their sins." Of course, now, we see in it a prophecy of the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, though then it was most likely an undefined thought.

II. 1. (b) "There was a man that had two sons; and he went to one, and said "Son, go to work to-day in my vineyard." And he answered and said "I will not"; but afterwards he repented, and went. And the father went to the other son and said "Son, go to work to-day in my vineyard." And he answered and said "I go, sir," but went not at all to the work. Whether of the twain did the will of their father?" They (the priests) say unto him "the first." "From this we see that the parable was aimed at

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the chief priests, scribes, and Pharisees, who had been trying to trap him in his talk. The man was God, the two sons, those that did his will, and those that did not, and the vineyard was the world. The scribes and Pharisees were those who made a lot of show, and were very particular about all the little outside observances of religion, but did not really work, like the son in the parable who said "I go, sir" and did not go at all, Thus they were made to condemn themselves by saying that the first did the will of God, and not the second,

2, (a) Pilate had been cross-examining Jesus, and had "found no fault in him." When he asked the people what he should do with him, they cried out, saying "Crucify him, crucify him." But Pilate answered and said "Shall I crucify your King?" But they cried out yet the more, saying "Crucify him, crucify him." Then Pilate took a bason, and washed his hands before the multitude saying "I have nothing to do with this righteous man; see ye to it," And the people cried out, saying "His blood be upon us and upon our children," Then Jesus was led away.

1. Un fusil, une bandouliere, des cartouches, une gibeciere, un permis de chasse, et une meute de chiens,
2 (recited),
"Savez-vous son nom?"--La nature
Reunit en vain ces cent voix.
L'etoile a l'etoile murmure
"Quel Dieu nous imposa nos lois?"
La vague a la vague demande
"Quel est celui qui nous gourmande?"
La foudre dit a l'aquilon
"Sais-tu comment ton Dieu se nomme?"
Et les astres, la terre, et l'homme
Ne peuvent achever son nom,

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Que tes temples, Seigneur, sent etroits pour mon ame!
Tombez, murs impuissants, tombez!
Laissez-moi voir ce ciel que vous me derobez!
Architecte divin, tes domes sont de flammes !
Que tes temples, Seigneur, sont etroits pour mon ame!
Tombez, murs impuissants, tombez!

4. Cette aiguille est tres aigue. Ces animaux soot de trois familles. Ce mouvement est tres facile; un pas avec ce pied, et il faut qu'un bras faire ce tour. Cet homme etait bien fait de sa personne. Ils etaient tres sages; ils mettaient leurs livres dans l'armoire, pas sur la table. Ses filles etaient tres mechantes. Il fit un tel pas, que je pensais qu'il tomberait. Chaque personne fit une gran de reverence, quand Ie roi venait.

1. (Heroengeschichten has not been taken, so "Kaiser Karl am Luther's Grab" is recited, from page 24 of A Book of German Ballads, Cambridge University Press.)

In Wittenberg, der starken Luther's Feste
Ist Kaiser Karl, der Sieger, eingedrungen;
Wohl ist den Stamm, zu fallen, ihm gelungen
Doch neue W urzeln schlagen rings die Aeste.
In Luther's Feste hausen fremde Geste
Doch Luthers Geist der bleibet unbezwungen
Da, wo des Geistes Schwert er hat geschwungen
Da ruhen billig auch des Leibes Reste.
Am Grabe steht der Kaiser, tier geriihret.
"Auf denn, und rache dich an dem Gebeinen
Den Flammen gib sic preis, wie sich's gebuhret."
So hort man aus der Diener Tross den Einen.
Der Kaiser spricht "Den Krieg hab' ich gefiihret
Mit Lebenden; um Todte lasst uns weinen."

2. Welche dieses Blumen ist den schonsten? Ich war einmal in Berlin und dreimal in Paris.

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3. Ich babe sechs gute Bucher. Er ist funfzehnmal gestraft worden. Wir sind siebzehn edtele Knaben. Neun Knaben sind in dieses Spiel. Vier Bucher waren gross-Achtzehn-hundert schlecht Knauen.


(Answers difficult to type; scanned image may be included here.)

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(a) Sir Walter Scott was a well-known writer in the early part of the 19th century. His novels are read by almost everyone; and, though, perhaps, his poetry is not quite so well-known, still at most places one finds people who have read or heard of the "Lady of the Lake" or "Marmion." The first of his novels was "Waverly" (sic), and so they are often called the "Waverley Novels." The historical tales are very good, giving the reader a splendid idea of life in the 12th or 13th centuries; "Ivanhoe," "Betrothed," "The Talisman" and "Kenilworth" (this latter is about the 16th century, in Queen Elizabeth's reign). "The Heart of Midlothian" is also very interesting, and "Peveril of the Peak" tells about the fighting between the Cavaliers and Roundheads in the time of Charles I., and Oliver Cromwell. The "Lady of the Lake" is about the longest poem Sir Walter Scott ever wrote; it is very beautiful, and many pieces in it are most interesting. "Marmion" tell (sic) of a battle, and how a Lord Marmion was killed there.

1. Alexander once upon a time asked a pirate whom he had taken by what right he infested the seas? At that,

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"The same," said he "by which you do (infest) the world. But because I do it with a small ship, I am called a robber; you, because you do it with a great fleet and army are called a general." Alexander dismissed the man unhurt. Did he do rightly?

Alexander olim comprehensum piratam interrogavit, quo jure maria infestaret? me "Eodem," inquit " quo tu orbem terrarum. Sed quia ego parvo navigio facio, latro vocor; tu, quia magna classe et exercitu, imperator." Alexander inviolatum hominem dimisit. Num juste fecit?

Alexander, noun proper, masc., sing., nominative case.
Olim, adv. modifies verb "interrogavit."
Comprehensum, participle used as adj., modifying "piratam."
Piratam, n. common, masc., sing., objective case, governed by "interrogavit." .
Interrogavit, verb, transitive, 3rd pers. sing. Past Tense.
Quo, relative pron., ablative case, antecedent "jure."
Jure, n. common, neuter, sing., ablative case.
Maria, n. common, neuter singular, objective case to "infestaret."
Infestaret, intransitive verb, 3rd person singular Present Subjunctive Tense. .

2. (a) Somnimus totus noctes. (b) Docebo te musicam. (c) Romani Numam regem elexerunt. (d) Galli cis Rhenum habitaverunt. (e) Magister videt multos pueros ludere.
   (a) illustrates that the object is in the accusative in Latin.
   (b) " " the double object is in the accusative.
   (c) " " the double object is in the accusative.
   (d) illustrates that all prepositions as "cis" take the acc. case.
   (e) " " with a sentence like "The master sees that many boys play" you prefix with "Master sees" leave out "that" turn "many boys" into accusative, and turn "play" into the infinitive.

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English History.
1. The Anti-Com-law League was formed early in the reign of Queen Victoria. Its name shews that its object was to get the Corn Laws repealed or rather to have the taxes on corn taken off, as they were causing distress in the country. Eloquent men went about the country, speaking to the people, and telling them how much better it would he not to have them, until they were convinced that it was so, and made rather a fuss over it, so that one Prime Minister, Lord Russell, resigned, and Lord Melbourne came in, and took off some of the taxes. People now seem to be thinking that it would be a good thing to put on some of these corn taxes again, and the country is again rather agitated about it, and Mr Chamberlain, Mr Balfour, and many other gentlemen go about making speeches either for, or against it, according to their different views, just as people did then, when Sir Robert Peel did take them off.

2. England joined in the Crimean war, because they were afraid that if Russia got hold of Turkey, they might prevent the English going to and from India, and that thus the command we had over India might be loosened and India might once more become an independent country. France entered because Napoleon III. wished to show that he had some power, and was not afraid of war. Sardinia entered in because the King of Sardinia's minister, Count Cavour, wished to shew that Sardinia had some power, and he also thought that by making powerful friends such as England and France, his master, King Victor Emmanuel might one day become king of Italy. Russia wanted to put down Turkey, and Turkey of course went against Russia. It was a very sad war, mostly because of the bad management. The charges of the Light and Heavy Brigades, the battles of Inkerman, Balaclava, and last of all, the long siege of Sebastopol, which might have been prevented, had we charged the day before at the Russians, so as to prevent

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them get (sic) hold of, and fortifying the chief tower, all tells (sic) of suffering from the intense cold, and death of the soldiers by scores.

French History.
1. The Prussians advanced into France, meeting with resistance everywhere, but still they went steadily on; till at last they reached Paris, which they besieged for a long time, so that the people were obliged to eats cats, dogs, horses and even rats and mice, so that they had to give in. Then there was a treaty made, and Prussia made France give up the two provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, and also made them pay an immense sum of money, which was only paid off about 10 years ago. France cannot rest with Alsace and Lorraine in the hands of the Emperor of Germany, and keeps up large armies in the hopes of winning them back some day. Germany also keeps up large armies, in readiness for resistance, and these two countries make Europe like an armed camp.

2. In 1875 people thought that they would like a king again, but after all a new Constitution was made and passed by the Assembly. This government still lasts. There is a Chamber of Deputies, something like our English Parliament. There is also another Chamber called the Senate, like the House of Lords in England. A President is chosen, and after seven years, gives up his post, and someone else is chosen. Ministers carry on the government so as to please the National Assembly. New people must be chosen if they are not liked by the Assembly.

Roman History.
1. The Veintes, one of the Tuscan nations, declared that Romulus ill-treated the Fidenre, who belonged to them. This was absurd, as the Veintes had not tried to help the Fidenre when Romulus took them, and therefore they had

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a war, in which Romulus was victorious and on the anniversary for some years after the Romans celebrated their victory by having a herald who called through the town "Sardians to be sold" (the Veientes were called Sardians, because the Tuscans were descended from the Sardians, and several young boys in ropes represent (sic) the Veientes.

2. The Romans imagined that there were not enough women for them all to have a wife, so they attacked the Sabines and carried off several women. These were treated with courtesy and respect, but the Sabine men did not like it, and declared war. But while they were fighting the women ran in between, and beseeching, on one side their fathers, and on the other their husbands, to stop, they did stop, and made up the quarrel.

1. The West Indies are a set of islands enclosing the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. They form two large groups, the Greater Antilles and the Lesser Antilles. The largest island in the Greater Antilles is Cuba, which belongs to Spain. It is a lovely place, with palm-trees cocoa and coffee plantations, and sugar and tobacco are largely exported. The capital is Havana, where the best cigars in the world are made; and it also has a good harbour from whence is exported the sugar, coffee, cocoa and rum made in the island. The island next in size in our first group is Hayti or St Domingo. Part of this island belongs to Spain, and the other part once belonged to France, but is now a little negro kingdom. Its capital is Port au Prince. Jamaica is the next island; this belongs to Britain, and is the chief place from which we get our sugar, cocoa and coffee. The capital is Kingston, a nice bright town, with churches and a Town Hall, and a governor's residence. Porto Rico is a Spanish island of not very much importance.

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Its capital is Don Juan, named after the Spanish sailor who first discovered it. Then comes a little group of islands called the Virgin Islands, of which the most important is Santa Cruz, which belongs to Denmark. They are between the Greater and Lesser Antilles. The largest island in the Lesser Antilles is Guadeloupe, which belongs to France. It is a pleasant island, with a lovely bay on which stands the capital, Grande Terre. Dominica (British), Barbuda, Anguilla, Antigua, and St John's (also British) are some of the most important British islands. The other French islands are Martinique, and Marie Galante. St Vincent, and Barbadoes (capital Bridgetown) are also important British islands. After passing the Lesser Antilles, we come to the beautiful island of Trinidad, with its capital, Port of Spain, on the lovely blue Gulf of Paria, which separates it from Venezuela.

[Map; not included in the book.]

4. Coral reefs are formed by tiny animals called "coral polypes" which, almost as soon as they are born, begin to separate part of their food to build up their houses. They often stick to one another and build in companies. We will imagine 10 of these little animals have started building at the bottom of the sea. Two or three of them may have stuck to each other, and soon a little pillar appears of red, white or (very rarely) black coral. New little polypes are born, and they build on and round their parents' work. So it get (sic) broader and higher, and more and more little ones come to enlarge the work, till one day a point of red or white coral appears above the surface of the sea. More and more of it appears, till there is quite a little island. Then the wind often blows seeds, and the birds bring them, and the sea washes up sand into the nooks and crannies, till palm-trees grow, and other plants, and birds build their nests there, and maybe have tiny birds themselves, and so there is an island fit for man's use, and it all started

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from two or three little coral polypes about 1/8 of an inch long.

Volcanos are apparently openings in the earth's crust down to (sic) very centre of the earth, where many people believe that there is a great fire, the remains of the days when the earth was a seething mass of fiery vapour. When eruptions break forth, flames and smoke reaching to an enormous height come out of the crater, and fiery lava runs in streams down the sides of the mountain, burning everything in its course, and stones and ashes are thrown out ever so far. In the sad eruption of Mont Pelee in 1901 ashes fell on steamers more than 100 miles away, and the noise of the eruption was heard for miles, and the city of St Pierre (the capital of Martinique) was entirely buried in ashes and lava; only a few church walls or street corners are remaining now to show that St Pierre was once a flourishing city. This shews that volcanoes are evidently openings through which the inside of the earth seems sometimes to "let off steam."

[Diagrams; not included in book.]


English Grammar.
[diagram/table needs to be scanned]

One, numeral adj., modifying "flowers." By, preposition, joining "one" to "one." Close, transitive verb, 3rd pers. plur., Present Tense. Shutting, present participle, governing "petals." Their, pels. poss. pron., 3rd pers. phil. From, preposition, governing "moon." Still, adj., modifying "grasshoppers." So, adv., modifying "soon." Soon, adv. of time, modifying "are still." Noisy, adj., qualifying "crows."

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2. Go quickly; he is dying. A dying man lies there. Making a dress is difficult. I am making a box. To tell tales is mean. I was to tell you that. But for him, I should not be here. Had you but a knife, we should be safe. Yes, but he is stupid, so I cannot make him hear.

3. Episode, epi-tome. Hypo-crite, hypo-thesis. Cataract, cat-astrophe, cat-hedral. Di-phong (sic). Syn-tax, syl-lable, sym-pathy.

Natural History.
I. (b) Foraminiferre are in the Rhizopoda, or root-footed family. They have a little opening in their shells, through which they send out hairs to catch very tiny water creatures and suck them in. Their shells are made from something they swallow. They are all sorts of shapes, and can be seen without a microscope, though their lovely coloured shells and tiny bodies can be seen better with it. They increase by self-division, but they generally grow from tiny buds on the bodies of their mothers.

[Diagrams; not included in book.]

Sponges are cousins to the Foraminiferre, but are slightly higher up in the Rhizopoda family. They are full of tiny holes, with sometimes a bigger opening. These little holes lead into little passages, which are continually leading into one another, and the bigger holes lead into bigger passages. They are made of some sort of fine tissue, which the sponge animal makes out of some part of its food after it has been digested. In these passages tiny, soft slimy creatures live, which are able to throw out hairs from themselves, with which they sweep water in and out of their house. Their children are born from buds, by self-division, and also from eggs. Some sponges increase in all these different ways at once, so that one sponge often becomes the father of several families. Little hard things called Sponge spicules grow round the eggs to protect them. They

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are made from the lime the Sponge finds in the water, and often have beautiful shapes.

[Diagrams; not included in book.]

2. It has been found, that though people speak of the "everlasting hills" yet they cannot have been always where they are now. Mountains that are formed of rocks of any kind, either sedimentary, or organic, must have been laid down at the sea-bottom and something must have pushed them up; either earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions. If, for example, several different kinds of Sedimentary Rocks were laid down flat at the sea-bottom (fig.1) till they were

[Diagrams; not included in book.]

hundreds, perhaps thousands of feet thick, and they also happened to lie on some weak part of the earth's crust, where earthquakes sometimes happen, they may be squeezed or pushed up above the surface of the sea, and round them may be deposited more rocks, and they may be pushed up, and so land may be formed, with some parts higher than the rest, and these parts are called mountains.


[Diagrams; not included in book.]

2. The raspberry, strawberry and blackberry are all of the Rose family. But there are little differences between them; they are not all alike. The raspberry is like the strawberry in that its seed boxes grow on a mound. But when you look at the ripe fruit, you will see that the seed boxes themselves grow bigger, softer and rounder, and also they shrink away from the white mound, so that a ripe raspberry comes off without a little stalk, etc., hanging on. The Blackberry is just the same as the raspberry, only it is black, and the round juicy seed boxes do not shrink away from the mound quite so much. The construction of the strawberry fruit, however, is slightly different. Here it is the little mound that swells,

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and becomes a bright red, and the seed boxes (generally wrongly called "seeds") remain hard and small, looking something like little yellow apple pips.

Euclid (first set).

[mathematical diagrams]

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[mathematical diagrams]


How Oral Lessons Are Used

Though the role of the teacher should, in a general way, be like a University tutor who "reads with" his men. Oral lessons, also, are indispensable, whether in introducing a course of reading or in bringing out specific points in readings. Oral lessons also give the teacher opportunities to read passages from other books related to the subject at hand. this is a sure way to increase children's interest in extended knowledge. Some subjects, again,

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as Languages, Mathematics, Science, depend very much upon oral teaching and demonstrations. It might be good if the lecture, with its accompanied note-taking and reports, were cut out of the ordinary curriculum, and the oral lesson was made a channel for free intellectual dialogue between teacher and student, and a way to broaden the intellectual horizon of children. I'm including a few sets of notes of criticism lessons which have been given by different student teachers of the House of Education to the children in the Practising/Intern School. These lessons are always expansions or illustrations or summaries of some part of the scholars' current book-work.



Subject: Old Testament History.

Group: History.   Class lb.   Average age: 8.   Time: 20 minutes.


1. To interest the children in the story of Jacob's death so that they won't forget it.
2. To give a new concept of God as drawn from the story of Jacob's deathbed--the concept of God's abiding presence.
3. To give them an admiration for Joseph as a son who honored his father and mother.


Step 1. Recap the last lesson, and follow Jacob's journey with his family from Canaan to Egypt, using a map.
Step 2. Show the children that Joseph was the first of Jacob's sons to visit him when he was ill. Draw their attention to the particular trait of Joseph's character shown in this story.
Step 3. Describe in a few words the surroundings in which the events of the story take place.

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Step 4. Read carefully to the children suitable parts of Genesis 48, reminding them to pay special attention to the words of the Bible, because they express the scene so beautifully.
Step 5. While the children are narrating using the words from the Bible, help them by asking questions to bring out the important points of the story.
Step 6. Help the children to realise how Joseph's love for his father affected his life, and how they should let their parents feel their own love.
Step 7. Let the children see that this family realized God's abiding presence, and show them how any family can realize it in the same way, if they're open to it.

Subject: New Testament Story--Jesus Stilling the Storm.

Group: History.   Class II.   Average age of children: 10.   Time: 30 minutes.


1. To try to give to the children some new spiritual thought and a practical idea of faith.
2. To bring the story of the Stilling of the Storm vividly before their minds.
3. To interest them in the geography of the Holy Land.
4. To help them to feel the wonderful directness, beauty, and simplicity of the Bible language by using careful, graphic reading: in short, to make them feel the poetry of the Bible.


1. Bibles for the children.
2. A map of Palestine.
3. Thomson's Land and Book.
4. Pictures of:--(1) A storm on a lake; (2) Galilean boats; (3) The Sea of Galilee.

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Step 1. Ask the children to find Matt. 8:23 in their Bibles. Tell the story of the Stilling of the Storm, keeping as closely as possible to the language of the Bible.
(a) Let the children find the Sea of Galilee on the map, gathering from the map some notion of the surrounding country; compare with Lake Windermere.
Show the course of their journey by referencing verses 5 and 28 in the same chapter.
Show pictures of ships used in the East and on the Sea of Galilee.
(b) Describe the storm graphically, drawing out from the children some possible reasons for the sudden storms (caused by the ravines, down which the winds rush); get from them their idea of a storm at sea or on a lake. Show a photograph of a storm on Lake Windermere.
(c) Try to make the children understand the twofold nature of our Lord:
          (1) His Humanity--He was apparently tired.
          (2) His Divinity--His power over Nature
(d) Try to make the children feel the simplicity of the Bible language and the forceful way in which it brings pictures before the mind.
There arose a great storm--His disciples came to Him--He arose--there was a great calm--Refer to Psalm 107:23-30.
(e) "The men marvelled." Try to show the children that faith is just another word for understanding, knowing how, the better we know a person, the more we can trust him. Draw out from the children how faith is shown in nearly every verse of this story, but, as far as the disciples were concerned, it did not go far enough.

Draw out from them that it is not necessary to always be with a person in order to have faith in him. Ask them how people show faith in all the things they do in their daily lives.

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Step 2. Read the story from the Bible; read it carefully, so that the children will appreciate its literary value and see the vivid pictures that it brings before the mind.
Step 3. Let the children narrate the story, keeping as close as possible to the Bible words.

Subject: Reading.

Group: English.    Class III.    Average age: 13.   Time: 25 minutes.


1. To try to improve the children's read-aloud skills by dril1ing them in clear and pure pronunciation.
2. To show them that by their reading, a series of mental pictures should be presented to the listener.


Step 1. Breathing exercises. Ask them the reason for doing the exercises.
Step 2. Give the children practice with consonant and vowel sounds, by giving them sentences that have difficulties in pronunciation.
m, en, n. A stricken maiden musing on a mountain was given from heaven man in mortal form.
final t. A just knight felt a weight on his heart, and yet a sweet quiet rest was present when he went to meet the light.
p, b. A path of prickly brambles, bordered by pure pale poppies, breathed peace between the broken beams.
d. Touched by the hand that appeared from the cloud under which nodded the dead leaves. (Notice final d is sometimes pronounced like t.)
Step 3. Read the passage chosen, from Tennyson's 'Sir Galahad,' asking the girls afterwards to describe the mental pictures they imagined.

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"A maiden knight to me is given
Such hope, I know not fear;
I yearn to breathe the airs of heaven
That often meet me here.
I muse on joy that will not cease,
Pure spaces clothed in living beams,
Pure lilies of eternal peace,
Whose odours haunt my dreams;
And, stricken by an angel's hand,
This mortal armour that I wear,
This weight and size, this heart and eyes
Are touched, are turned to finest air.
The clouds are broken in the sky,
And through the mountain walls
A rolling organ-harmony
Swells up, and shakes and falls.
Then move the trees, the copses nod,
Wings flutter, voices hover clear:
'O just and faithful knight of God!
Ride on! the prize is near.'
So pass I hostel, hall and grange;
By bridge and ford, by park and pale,
All-armed I ride, whate'er betide,
Until I find the Holy Grail."

Step 4. Show the girls a reproduction of Watts' conception of Sir Galahad, asking them in what points the poet's and artist's ideas coincide.
Step 5. Let the children read the passage.

Subject: Narration (Plutarch's life of Alexander--part of the term's work).

Group: Language.    Class II.    Average age: 10. Time: 20 minutes.


1. To improve the children's power of narration by impressing on them Plutarch's style (as translated by North), and making them narrate as much as possible in his words.

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2 To inspire admiration in the children of Alexander's love of simplicity, generosity, and kindness to his men.


Step 1. Connect with the last lesson by questioning the children. Last time they read stories illustrating Alexander's graciousness and tact.
Step 2. Tell the children briefly the substance of what I am going to read to them, letting them find any places mentioned on their maps.
Step 3. Read to the children about three pages, dealing with the luxury of the Macedonians, Alexander's march to Bactria, and the death of Darius. Read this slowly and distinctly, and into the children as much as possible.
Step 4. Ask the children in turn to narrate, letting each of them narrate a part of what was read.

Subject: From Plutarch's 'Greek Lives.'


(An Introductory Lesson.)

Group: History.    Class II.    Age: 8 and 9.    Time: 30 minutes.


1. To establish relations with the past.
2. To introduce the boys to a fresh hero.
3. To stir them to admiration of the wisdom, valour, and self-reliance of Alexander the Great.
4. To increase the boys' skill at narration.


Step 1. Begin by connecting Alexander the Great with the time of Demosthenes, of whom the boys have been learning recently.

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Step 2. Draw from them some account of the times in which Alcxander lived and of Philip of Macedon.
Step 3. Arouse the boys' interest in Alexander by the story of the taming of Bucephalus, which must be read, discussed, and then narrated by the boys.
Step 4. Ask the boys what they mean by a hero. The old meaning was demi-god, the Anglo-Saxon meaning, a man. Both really meant a man who was brave and true in every circumstance.
Ask them, 'What are the qualities which go to make a hero?' Draw from them how far we can trace these qualities in Alexander. We notice:--
Wisdom.--'What a horse are they losing for want of skill to manage him!'
Perseverance.--He kept repeating the same expression
Self-reliance.--'And I certainly could.' This was justified by the fact that he could.
Observation.--He noticed that the horse was afraid of Its shadow.
Courage.--Seeing his opportunity, he leaped upon its back.
Prudence.--He went very gently till he could feel that he had perfect control of the animal.

These are not all the qualities one looks for in a hero, but as the boys will be learning all about Alexander next term, they will be able to find out for themselves what others he had. They will see, for instance, how he never imagined a defeat but went on, conquering as he went (Hope).

The name of Alexander has never been forgotten, because he was so great a hero. Owing to him, the language and civilisation of Greece were carried over a great part of Asia. Show map illustrating his campaigns. He tried to improve the land wherever he went. Owing to his travels, people began to know more than they had ever known of geography and natural history.

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Himself a hero, Alexander reverenced heroes, keeping 'the casket copy' of The Iliad.
Step 5. Recapitulate Step 4 by means of questions.

Subjed: The Godwins.

Group: History.    Class III.    Average age: 13.   Time: 30 minutes.


1. To recapitulate and enlarge on the period of history taken during the term (A.D. 871-1066).
2. To increase the children's interest in it by giving as much as possible in detail the history of one of the prominent families of the period.
3. To exemplify patriotism in the character of the Godwins.


Step 1. Recapitulate what the girls know of the period briefly by questioning about the Saxon and the Danish kings and leading men, making a chart on the blackboard.
Step 2. Begin with the reign of Canute. Enlarge upon their present knowledge as to his character and deeds whilst king of England, and let a girl read the account of his pilgrimage to Rome (Freeman's Old English History, p. 242).
Step 3. Give an account of the early history of Earl Godwin--his apparently humble origin--his love of his country--his character. He rose by his valour and wisdom--was loved by both Saxons and Danes--was merciful to his foes. He married Gytha, sister of Earl Ulf--was made Earl by King Canute--and had Wessex given him as his kingdom. Put on the blackboard the names of the three divisions of England, with their earls or rulers.
Step 4. The period between the death of Canute and

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Edward the Confessor's coming to the throne. Under Harold and Hartha--Canute Danish rule became distasteful, and the English longed for an English king. Let a girl read the account of Hartha--Canute's treatment of the people of Worcester and the conduct of Godwin and the other earls on that occasion (p. 250).

Step 5. Edward the Confessor. Ask them questions about his early life and education, and how these affected his character and ideas. Was he a suitable man for a king? Not powerful enough to rule--Godwin became his supporter and adviser. Marriage of Godwin's daughter, Edith, to the king. Godwin's eloquence and influence over the people. (Read from Knight's History, p. 162.)
Step 6. Godwin's patriotism is put to the test. Speak of his banishment with his wife and six sons, and its consequences. William of Normandy invited over to England--great dissatisfaction at misrule in England--the people resent the Normans being put in office. Let G-- read (p. 262).
Step 7. Godwin's return--he and his family again received into favour--his death--the crime which had been laid to his charge--Harold a worthy successor. Show from a map the divisions of England at the death of the 'Confessor.' Read from Lord Lytton's Harold (p. 63).

Subjed: History.

Group: History.   Class IV.    Age: 16.   Time: 40 minutes.



1. To establish relations with the past.
2. To show how closely literature and history are linked together and how the one influences the other.

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3. To try to give yet a clearer idea of the social and political state of France before the Revolution than the girls have now, and to draw from them the causes which brought about the Revolution in France and at this time (1789).


Step 1. Begin by noticing the state of France generally. Feudalism was still in existence, without its usefulness and with most of its abuses, and it led to the great division of Classes--the Privileged and the Unprivileged. In both Army and Church it was impossible for the unprivileged to rise by merit; all offices were filled by the privileged classes. These were exempt from many taxes. Draw from G-- and S-- the chief taxes--Taille, levied on property, and the Gabelle, which forced everyone to buy a certain amount of salt from the Government at an enormous rate.

Step 2. Speak of the state of France in the country, showing what was the relation of the peasant to his lord. The land he lived on generally belonged to him; in return for which he had to grind his com at his lord's mill, etc., had to give his work free on certain days in the year, and help to make the roads in his lord's land (corvee). Tell them something of the Game Laws and the 'Intendants.'

Step 3. Notice the state of France in the towns, showing how impossible it was for a poor man to set up in a trade, owing to the guilds and monopolies. The merchants, together with men who held certain offices under Government, formed a separate class, far removed from both the peasants and the nobles.

Step 4. The state of the Church. For the most part the higher ecclesiastics were hated and despised. This was not the case with the 'cures,' for they were of the peasantry, and shared their troubles. But the higher ecclesiastics were generally younger sons of nobles, who drew the salaries of

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their offices and lived a gay life at Court. The Church also imposed heavy dues.

Step 5. Show that these evils might have been remedied gradually (as in England) had there been a representative assembly regularly called, or any true justice. But as justice could be bought and sold, the poor man always lost his cause, and the pleadings of the peasants could in no way make themselves heard. They had risen just before this time, but unsuccessfully.

Step 6. Draw from G-- and S-- the reason why the Revolution broke out in France rather than in any other Continental country. Because, though the evils in France were no worse than those borne by the German peasants, the French people had been awakened to the knowledge of their misery and of their right to liberty by many great writers. Such were Voltaire, Rousseau, Diderot, d'Alembert, and Montesquieu. Get from G-- and S-- all I can about these men and their influence on history.

Step 7. Draw from G-- and S-- why the Revolution broke out just in 1789. Rousseau had written his works since about 1730, and Voltaire since 1718.

The French had borne their lot under Louis XIV.'s strong government. Louis XV. was very different. The evils of a despotic government were clearly shown by him. He it was who said, 'Apres nous le deluge!' Then came Louis XVI., conscientious and full of good intentions.
Get from the girls something of Louis' character. But the great opportunity of the people came in the calling of the States General, in order to raise money.

Step 8. A short recapitulation of the principal points.

pg 340

Subject: Literature.

Group: English.    Class IV.    Age: 16    Time: 45 minutes.



1. To give some main principles to guide the choice of reading.
2. To give a short sketch of the life of Charles Lamb.
3. To show how the writer's character is reflected in The Essays of Elia.
4, To emphasise the fact that very thoughtful reading is necessary in order to get full pleasure and benefit from a book.


Step 1. Decide with the pupils as to some principles which should guide us in the choice of books, such as the following:
Never waste time on valueless books.
Have respect for the books themselves.
Try to cultivate taste by noticing the best passages in any book that is being read.
Time is too short to read much; there is a necessity, therefore, for judicious selection.
The best literature can only be appreciated by those who have fitted themselves for it.
It is more important to read well than to read much.
The gain of reading some of the most beautiful literature while we are young is that we shall then have beautiful thoughts and images to carry with us through life.
To get at the full significance of a book it is necessary to dig for it.

Thus The Essays of Elia are not only pleasant reading, but they are the reflection of the writer's character. All

vol 3 appendix pg 341

that Lamb was can be gathered from his works, and to rightly understand these one must know something of the grand though obscure life of Charles Lamb.

Step 2. Try to draw from the girls, who are already familiar with some of the essays, what they tell us of Charles Lamb.
Charles Lamb was born 1775. His father was in the service of Mr Salt, whose portrait is found in The Old Bencher of the Inner Temple. 1782, Charles received a presentation from Mr Salt to Christ's Hospital (see Essay).
The result of his education is summed up in The Schoolmaster. From fifteen to twenty he was a clerk in the South Sea House (Essay).
In 1795 he was transferred to the India House. He lived near Holbom with his parents and his sister Mary. Here took place the calamity occasioned by Mary's insanity.
Charles' heroic resolution. One learns something of the dream he renounced in Dream Children. His work at the India House was uninteresting, but such as left him leisure for intellectual pursuits. This distribution of occupation was a means of conserving his mental balance. His literary work was all done in the evening: 'Candle Light' in Popular Fallacies.

The girls will then read Talfourd's estimate of Lamb.

Letters to Robert Lloyd show Lamb's persistent cheerfulness. This cheerful tone is also noticeable in many of his essays: Mrs Battle, All Fool's Day, My Relations (portrait of John Lamb), Mackery End (portrait of Mary Lamb) Poor Relations, and Captain Jackson. C. Lamb died 1834.

Step 3. Summarise by questions.

vol 3 appendix pg 342

Subjed: English Grammar.

Group: Language.    Class II.    Average age: 10.  Time: 20 minutes.


1. To increase the children's power of reasoning and attention.
2. To increase their knowledge of English Grammar.
3. To introduce a new part of speech--preposition.


Step 1. Draw from the children the names of the two kinds of verbs and the difference between them, by putting up sentences on the board. Thus in the sentence 'Father slept,' 'slept,' as they know, is intransitive; therefore he could not 'slept' anything, as 'slept' cannot have an object.

Step 2. Put on the board the sentence 'Mary went,' and ask the children to try and make it more complete by adding an object. 'Mary went school' would not be sense, but' Mary went to school' would. Ask for other phrases saying where Mary went, as, for a walk, into the town, with mother, on her bicycle, by train, etc.

Step 3. Tell the children that these little words, on, in, by, for, with, etc., belong to a class of words which are very much used with intransitive verbs; they have not much meaning when used alone, yet in a sentence they cannot stand without an object. You cannot say 'Mary went in,' without saying what she went in.

Step 4. Introduce the word 'preposition,' giving its derivation. Because these little words always take objects after them, and because their place is before the object, they are called prepositions, 'pre' being the Latin word for 'before,' and 'position' another word for 'place.'

Step 5. Write on the board the definition:--'A pre-position always has an object after it.'

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Step 6. Let the children work through the following exercises:
(1) Put three objects after each of the following prepositions:--in, on, over, by, with, and from.
(2) Put three prepositions and their objects after the following:--Mary plays, Mother sits, John runs.
(3) Supply three prepositions in each of the following sentences:-- The book is __ the table. The chair is the door. I stood __ the window.
(4) Supply three subjects and verbs to each of the following prepositions and objects: __ in the garden, __ on the floor, __ by the fire.
(5) Make three sentences about each of the following, each sentence to contain an intransitive verb, a preposition and its object:--The white pony, My little brother, That pretty flower.

Subject: German Grammar.

Group: Languages.    Class III.    Average age: 13.   Time: 30 minutes.


1. To show the pupil that although the German construction of sentences may seem very much complicated, yet with the help of a few simple rules it can be made much clearer.
2. To draw these rules from the pupil by means of examples.
3. To teach two or three of these elementary rules.
4. To strengthen the relationship with the foreign language.


Step 1. Begin by finding out what the pupils know of compound sentences in English, i.e. that they consist of

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two or more clauses depending on each other, etc., and let them give one or two examples. Connect this lesson with a former one on the arrangement of words in German sentences by letting the pupils put one or two compound clauses on the board in German, and then giving the rule they illustrate.

Rule. Dependent clauses take the verb at the end of the clause.

These sentences the pupils can probably give themselves.

Step 2. Get the old rule that the past participle comes at the end of the sentence, with a few examples, one or two of which the pupils may write upon the board to compare with those illustrating the new rule.

Let the pupils put several sentences on the board illustrating the new rule.

Rule. In dependent clauses the auxiliary follows the past participle.

Sentences.--'Ich kehre zuruck, wenn sie angekommen ist.'
'Das Kind, welches verloren war, ist gefunden.'
Let the pupils translate these literally into English, and with the simple German clauses already on the board and the translation let them find the rule. Let them translate a few sentences into German to show that they thoroughly understand the rule.

Step 3. Treat the next rule almost in the same way, but have each sentence put on the board twice in different order, and find the rule by comparing these.

Rule. If the subordinate clause comes first the principal clause takes its verb at the beginning.
     (1) 'Sie gab den Armen viel, weil sie gut war!
     (2) 'Wiel sie gut war, gab sie den Armen viel.'
     (1) 'Er ging immer fort, obwohl er mude war.'
     (2) 'Obwohl er mude war, ging er immer fort.'

Step 5. Recapitulate.

pg 345

Subject French Narration.

Group: Languages.    Class III.    Average age: 13.    Time: 30 minutes.


1. To give the children more facility in understanding French when they hear it spoken, and also in expressing themselves in it.
2. To teach them some new words and expressions.
3. To improve their pronunciation.
4. To strengthen the habit of attention.
5. To introduce a new branch of the study of French and thus increase their interest in it.
6. To have the following passage narrated by the children.


Passage chosen: Le Corbeau.

"Auguste etant de retour a Rome, apres la bataille d'Actium, un artisan lui presenta un corbeau auquel il avait appris a. dire ces mots: Je te salue, Cesar vainquer!
Auguste charme, acheta cet oiseau pour six mille ecus. Un perroquet tit a. Auguste Ie meme compliment et fut achete fort chef. Une pie vint ensuite; Auguste l'acheta encore.
Entin un pauvre cordonnier voulut aussi apprendre a un cor beau cette salutation; il eut bien de la peine a. y parvenir, it se desesperait souvent et disait en enrageant:
Je perds mon temps et ma peine. Enfin il y reussit. Il alIa aussitot attendre Auguste sur son passage, et lui presenta Ie corbeau, qui repeta fort bien sa lec;on: mais Auguste se contenta de dire: J'ai assez de ces complimenteurs la dans moo palais. Alors Ie corbeau, se ressouvenant de ce qu'il avait souvent entendu dire a son maitre, repeta: J'ai perdu mon temps et ma peine. Auguste se mit a. rire et acheta cet oiseau plus cher que tous les autres,"

Step 1. Read the passage slowly and distinctly, stopping

vol 3 appendix pg 346

frequently to make sure that the children understand. Write the new words and expressions on the board and give their meanings.

Step 2. Let the children repeat the story in English.

Step 3. Read the passage straight through.

Step 4. Let the children read the passage, paying special attention to the pronunciation.

Step 5. Have the passage narrated in French, helping the children when necessary with questions.

Speak as much French as possible throughout, but always make sure that the pupils understand.

Subject: Italian Gouin.

Group: Language.   Class IV.    Average age: 16.    Time: 30 minutes.


1. To increase the girls' interest in foreign languages.
2. To enlarge their Italian vocabulary.
3. To give the girls more facility in understanding Italian when they hear it spoken, and also power to express themselves in it.


Step 1. Tell the children in a few words what the series is about.
Step 2. Explain the verbs in the infinitive, by doing the actions when possible.
Step 3. Let the children say the verbs in the infinitive.
Step 4. Let them write the verbs on the board.
Step 5. Explain, by actions, when possible, the rest of the series.
Step 6. Repeat each sentence several times slowly and carefully.
Step 7. Let the children repeat the sentences.
Step 8. Let them write the series on the board.

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Verbs.                    Italian.

Volere esercitarse   Luigia vuol esercitarsi sul piano.   
Aprire                  Apre il piano.
Suonare               Suona una scala e degli arpeggio
Studiare               Poi studia una Sonata di Beethoven.
Volere imparare     Che vuol imparare a mente.

Louise wishes to practise.
She opens the piano.
She plays a scale and some arpeggio
Then she studies a Sonata by Beethoven,
Which she wants to learn by heart.

Subject: Geography.

Group: Science.   Class III.   Average Age: 13.  Time: 30 minutes.



1. To introduce the children to Scandinavia.
2. To foster interest in foreign countries.
3. To teach the children how to learn the map of a country by means of map questions.
4. To implant mental pictures of the characteristic scenery of Norway in the children's minds.
5. To show, by means of comparison, the great difference in the physical features of the two countries which are included in Scandinavia, although they form only one peninsula.


Step 1. Let the children learn the map of Scandinavia, Norway in particular, by means of the map questions

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previously written on the blackboard, writing down their answers.

Step 2. Ask for a general description of Scandinavia.

Step 3. Let the children fill in the blank map on the blackboard.

Step 4. Require the children to give the answers to the questions, and, as they answer, give information, in order that they may become acquainted with each place as it is mentioned, and be able to picture it in their minds.


From the Geographical Readers, Book IV.

1. What waters bound the Scandinavian peninsula? To what land is it attached? What countries does it include?

NOTE. Describe the government of Scandinavia briefly, showing that, although Sweden and Norway have a common sovereign, each country has an independent parliament, elected in very much the same way, as our English Parliament.

2. Through how many degrees of latitude does this peninsula stretch? What other countries of the world lie partly in the same latitude?

3. Describe the coast of Norway. Compare it with that of Sweden. Name the four largest fiords or openings, beginning at the extreme north.

NOTE. Give the idea of the extraordinary way in which the coast is cut up, and the immense number of islands which fringe it. Girls to notice how these islands form an effective breakwater to the force of the Atlantic breakers, so that within their boundary the water is as calm and still as a lake.

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Describe the rocky, almost perpendicular sides of the fiords, over which the rivers fall in roaring torrents. Mention the fact that many ships of the Spanish Armada were driven as far north as Stadtland, and wrecked around this dangerous headland.

The Sogne is the largest and most important fiord. It is like a long sea channel running into the country for a distance of 100 miles, with branches right and left, over which wonderful torrents fall. The sides are very steep, and the water is very deep at the entrance. At the Sulen Islands, at the mouth of the fiord, Harold Hardrada collected his force for his expedition against England.

4. Name a group of islands north of the Arctic Circle. The most northerly island. The cape on this island. The most northerly cape on the mainland. The most southerly cape.

NOTE. The Lofoden Islands are granite rocks, rising from the water in hundreds of peaks, with jagged and fantastic outlines. The cod fisheries of these islands are very important, and employ a great number of people.
Nordkin, which means 'north chin,' is the most northerly point on the mainland of Europe. Incessant storms rage round the island of Mageroe, so that it is extremely difficult for anyone to land there.
Lindesnaes means 'Lime nose.'

5. Name five towns on the west, and three on the southeast coast of Norway.

NOTE. Stavanger is the fourth largest city in Norway. Its chief trade is in herrings. It has a very ancient Cathedral.
At Bergen the houses are built on the slopes of the hiIls which run out into the deep sea. It was formerly the capital, and is now a great fish port.

vol 3 appendix pg 350

Trondhjem is the oldest capital. The name means 'home of the throne,' and in the Cathedral the kings of Norway are crowned.
Hammerfest is the most northerly town in Europe.
Tourists go there to see the midnight sun. Read Charles H. Wood's description of the midnight sun, from the Geographical Reader.
Christiania, the capital of Norway, is not a big town, but has a most beautiful situation. It is at the head of the Christiania Fiord, which is studded with countless grassy and wooded islands. Most of the houses are of wood, painted white, with green blinds. The fiord, which used to be very much frequented by the old Vikings, is blocked by ice for four months of the year.

6. The Scandinavian mountains nearly fill Norway--by what name is the range known in the north, south, and centre? Name three or four of the highest peaks.

NOTE. There is no continuous range in the Scandinavian mountains; the whole is a high table-land, which increases in height as we go south, with here and there groups of peaks which appear like huge rocks dotted over the surface.
These plateaux are topped with moors or snowfields from which glaciers descend right down into the sea.

7. How does the position of the mountains affect the rivers? Compare the rivers of Norway with those of Sweden.

NOTE. Describe how, in Norway, the rivers rush in torrents over their rocky beds, while those in Sweden flow more gently down the gradual slope of the land. Give the threefold reason--great rainfall, small evaporation owing to the coldness of the climate, and small waste owing to the hardness

vol 3 appendix pg 351

of the rocks--for the great volume of water in the short, quick, Norwegian rivers.

8. Recapitulate with blank map, the girls adding descriptive notes as they answer the map questions.

Subject: Astronomy.

Group: Science.    Class IV.   Age: 16     Time: 30 minutes.


1. To interest the pupils in studying the heavens for themselves.
2. To show where the planets may be looked for and how they may be recognised.
3. To help the pupils to apply their theoretical knowledge of the planets to explain the movements they can observe with the naked eye.
4. To exercise the reasoning powers.


Step 1. Get the pupils to describe the changes to be seen in the sky at night, and, excluding the apparent motion caused by the earth's rotation, find out whether they have noticed and contrasted the constellations of fixed stars and the planets (wanderers).

Let the pupils tell which of the planets are visible to the naked eye, and ask whether they have noticed when and where are to be seen, at the present date, Jupiter, Saturn, and Mars, which are in Capricornus, Sagittarius, and Leo, respectively.

Step 2. Draw from the pupils, if possible, the marks by which planets can be distinguished from stars .
     (a) Their steady light.
     (b) Size (in the case of Venus and Jupiter).
     (c) Colour (in the case of Mars).

pg 352

     (d) Position (relatively to known constellations).
     (e) Motion (noticeable after successive observations).

Step 3. To enlarge on Point (d), let the pupils name the planets whose orbits are within that of the earth and those whose orbits are outside ours. By the help of a diagram (blackboard) of the solar system, get them to infer, from the nearness to the sun of Venus and Mercury, that these planets are never visible at midnight, but only just before sunrise and after sunset.

Step 4. To appreciate Points (d) and (e), get the pupils to recognise the advantage of knowing the constellations by sight. Show Philip's Planisphere, and refer to the Zodiac, showing that, besides being the sun's apparent path, this is the region in which to seek the planets.

Let the pupils find the portion of the heavens visible at 6 p.m. to-day, and indicate, both in the heavens and with respect to our landscape, the positions of Jupiter and Saturn. Also show how Mars may be looked for in the south, too, about 6 o'clock in the morning.

Step 5. To enlarge on Point (e), show a diagram of the path of Venus among the constellations in 1868 (Lockyer's Elementary Lessons in Astronomy, p. 183), and get the pupils to notice how large a distance she travelled in one month, in order to induce them to make personal observations. Prepare them to see the planets sometimes move backwards and sometimes remain stationary. Explain this by letting one of the girls move round the table, while the other watches how, with respect to her background, she appears to move first from left to right, then to remain stationary, then to move from right to left, and again to remain stationary. The moving girl, observing the other with respect to her background, notices the same phenomena.

Then show the diagram in Lockyer, which illustrates these facts, p. 178, and also another in Reid's Elements of Astronomy, p. 137, which shows the apparent motion of one planet viewed from another in motion.

vol 3 appendix pg 353


Group: Art.   Class III.   Age: 13.    Time: 25 minutes.


1. To give the girls some idea of composition, based on the work of the artist Jean Francois Millet.
2. To inspire them with a desire to study the works of other artists, with a similar object in view.
3. To help them with their original illustrations, by giving them ideas, carried out in Millet's work, as to simplicity of treatment, breadth of tone, and use of lines.


See that the girls are provided with paint-boxes, brushes, water, pencils, rulers, india-rubber, and paper.
Photographs of some of Millet's pictures.
A picture-book by R. Caldecott.


Step 1. Introduce the subject by talking with the children about their original illustrations. Tell them how our great artists have drawn ideas and inspiration from the work of other artists; have studied their pictures, copied them, and tried to get at the spirit of them.

Tell them that to-day we are going to study some of the pictures of the great French artist, Millet, some of whose works Mr Yates has drawn for us on the walls of our Millet Room, considering them to be models of true art.

Step 2. Tell the children a little about the life of Millet (giving them one or two pictures to look at meanwhile); give only a brief sketch, so that they will feel that he is not a stranger to them. Just talk to them a little about his early childhood, how

vol 3 appendix pg 354

he worked in the fields; how he had two great books--the Book of Nature and the Bible, from which he drew much inspiration; how later on he went to Paris and studied the pictures of great artists, Michael Angelo among them.

Step 3. Show the pictures to the girls, let them look well at them, and then draw from them their ideas as to the beauty and simplicity of the composition; call attention to the breadth of tone, and the dignity of the lines. Help them, sketching when necessary. to reduce a picture to its most simple form; half-closing their eyes to shut out detail, help them to get an idea of the masses of tone, etc.

Step 4. Let the children reproduce a detail of one of the pictures, working in water-colour with monochrome and making their washes simple and flat, reducing the tones to two or three.

Slep 5. Suggest to them to study the works of other artists in a similar way, and show them how the books of R. Caldecott will help them in making their figures look as if they were moving.

Subject: Fra Angelico.

Group: Art.    Class IV.    Average age: 16 1/2.     Time: 30 minutes.


1. To show reproductions of some of Fra Angelico's pictures.
2. By means of them, to point out such distinguishing features as will enable my pupils to recognise Fra Angelico's work wherever they may see it.
3. To show in what degree his work holds a place in high art.


Step 1. Give a short sketch of the life of Fra Angelico.
Step 2. Allow time for my pupils to look at the pictures

vol 3 appendix pg 355

provided, namely, various reproductions of 'Christ in Glory,' 'Saints in Paradise,' 'Angels,' 'Christ as Pilgrim,' 'Annunciation,' 'Crucifixion,' 'Noli me tangere,' 'Descent from the Cross,' 'Transfiguration.'

Step 3. To notice what strikes us most in Fra Angelico's work--the exquisite jewel-like finish; the pure open skies and unpretending clouds; the winding and abundant landscapes; the angels; the touches of white light; the delicacy and grace of form; the colouring; the peace.

Step 4. If high art is to be seen 'in the selection of a subject and its treatment, and the expression of the thoughts of the persons represented,' how far does Fra Angelico come up to this standard?
He unites perfect unison of expression with full exertion of pictorial power. This will be illustrated by further reference to the pictures, and by reading some passages from Modern Painters.

Step 5. Allow my pupils time to look again at the pictures, summarising meanwhile by a few questions.

Subject: Design.

Division: Art.    Class IV.   Average age: 16 1/2.    Time: 40 minutes.


1. To give the girls an idea of how to fill a space decoratively, basing the design on a given plant.
2. To show them that good ornament is taken from nature, but a mere copy of nature to decorate an object is not necessarily ornamental.
3. To give them an appreciation of good ornament and help them to see what is bad.
4. To draw out their originality by letting them make designs for themselves.
5. If possible, to give them a taste for designing by giving them some ideas as to its use.

vol 3 appendix pg 356


Step 1. Ask the girls what is meant by a design.

Step 2. After getting from them as much as possible, explain to them that a design is not a mere copy from nature, although it should be true to nature; make them see this by simply copying a plant in a required space to be designed (let this space be for a book cover). It will look meaningless and uninteresting, and does not fill the space, therefore it will not be ornamental. Then show the girls that a design requires thought and invention in arranging it to ornament the object. In the case of the book cover the flower must be designed to fill the space in some orderly pattern, and should be massed in good proportion. Give a few examples of this by illustrations on the board, and show them a book with a design upon it.

Step 3. Point out to them that the most beautiful designs and those that have had the most thought spent upon them are the most simple. Show examples of this in Greek Ornament--Greek Honeysuckle, Egg and Dart Moulding.

Step 4. Tell the pupils that you wish them to make a design for a linen book cover, 7 in. by 5 in., and if they have not time to finish to go on with it at home; if they like to carry the design out practically, to transfer it to linen and work it.

Step 5. Show the girls the flower from which they are to take their design, and point out its characteristics--the general growth of the plant, the curves which it makes, the form of the flower and leaves, and the way the leaves are joined to the central stem; these characteristics should not be lost sight of, but be made use of in giving character to the design, and treated as simply as possible.

Step 6. Let them begin their designs first of all by construction lines, and then clothe them with flowers and leaves, seeing that the masses are in good proportion. If time permits the design could be tinted in two colours, one

vol 3 appendix pg 357

for the background representing the linen, and the other for the pattern upon it.

Step 7. Suggest to them different ways in which they can make use of design in making simple patterns for their handicrafts, such as leather-work, wood-carving, and brass-work.

Subject: Leather-work (Embossed).

Group: Handicrafts.    Class IV.    Age: 16 1/2.    Time: 40 minutes.


1. To cultivate the artistic feeling in the pupils.
2. To train them in neatness and in manual dexterity.
3. To give training to the eye.
4. To introduce them to a new handicraft.
5. To work, as far as possible in the time, the top of a penwiper.


Step 1. Show the pupils a shaded drawing of the design, also a partly finished penwiper top, with the same design on it. When they have compared the two, they will see that the effect of light and shade is obtained in the leather by raising the light parts and pressing back the dark ones.

Step 2. Let the pupils trace the design on the leather with a pointer. Remove the tracing-paper and accentuate the lines with a pointer. (This is best done with a wheel in a large design.)

Step 3. Damp the leather and with a moulder press the background away from the outline of the design, also the dark parts under the folds at the top of the petals and round the centre. From behind, raise up the light parts with a moulder, and fill the holes thus made with a mixture of sawdust and meal, wet enough to make a kind of rough thick paste. Press away the dark parts again, and make any ornamental lines, etc., while the stuffing is wet, as it

vol 3 appendix pg 358

soon dries very hard. For this reason a very little must be stuffed at once; in this design, about one petal at a time.

Step 4. Let the pupils punch their background or not as they prefer.
Work on my own half-finished piece of leather to avoid touching the pupils' work.

Subject. Cooking.

Division: Handicrafts.    Class IV.     Age: 16 1/2.    Time. 45 minutes.


1. To teach the children to make little cakes.
2. To show them that cooking must have method in it.
3. To give them opportunity of thinking for themselves why certain things should be done.
4. To show them how they can alter a recipe to make it richer or plainer.
5. To interest them in cooking.


Step 1. Show the girls how to manage the stove for cooking.

Step 2. Show them all the utensils to be used, and let them arrange them on the table.

Step 3. Let them write out the recipe from dictation.

Step 4. Let them grease the tins first of all with melted butter. Then let them each weigh out the ingredients on pieces of kitchen paper, and let them work independently of each other, the teacher also doing the same thing, so that the pupils may be able to see how to set to work without having their own work interfered with. During the process ask them why certain things should be done--for instance, why baking powder should be used, why the patty-pans should be greased. Tell them that if they wished to make the cakes plainer they could use milk

vol 3 appendix pg 359

instead of eggs, or if richer, they could add raisins and currants and spice. When the mixture is sufficiently beaten and put into the patty-pans, let the girls put them into the oven.

Step 5. While the buns are cooking (they take about ten minutes), let the children and teacher wash up the things they have been using and put them away.

Step 6. Let the children see for themselves if the cakes are done; they should be a light brown. Then let them place them on a sieve to cool, and then arrange them on plates for the table.

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